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Bodies of Text: On the Lyric Essay. 1. THE WHITE SPACES. Suppose you want to write, in prose, about a slippery subject that refuses definition. Something like water, or the color blue. Like the word “lyric,” or the word “essay.” Beginning, you balk at the question of form. One long block of prose seems to apa format paper, suggest a linear accretion of wallace list meaning, building to a thesis—but the more you poke at your subject, the more it seems to apa format for research references, spread in all directions, to touch everything you’ve ever touched. Often, “lyric essayists” like Maggie Nelson, Anne Carson, and Eula Biss solve this problem, or represent it, by using white space. Each paragraph (Nelson prefers “proposition”), like a stanza of poetry, becomes a little island of villain text, lapped by whiteness—set against blankness, and in relation to the others.

Like music, lyric paragraphs make use of silence. Paper. They draw attention to database, their own density. In navigating them, the reader (perhaps confused, perhaps delighted) becomes a stakeholder in apa format paper references their meaning. Ever. What do the white spaces signify? What does their silence say? John D’Agata and apa format paper references Deborah Tall, editors of the literary journal Seneca Review, are generally credited with the institutionalization of the “lyric essay” as a genre. In the essay midsummer, introduction to references, a 2007 issue specially dedicated to the term, they write: “The lyric essay does not expound.

It may merely mention. As Helen Vendler says of the david wallace essays, lyric poem, ‘It depends on gaps. Apa Format Paper. . . . It is suggestive rather than exhaustive.’” In emphasizing the gaps, we run the risk of casting the lyric as diminutive: it “suggests,” or “merely mentions.” Do such verbs imply an anorexic refusal to “expound?” Or can the lyric essay give rise to a different kind of amplitude? In her book Lyric Time, Sharon Cameron refers to essay midsummer, the voice of the apa format references, lyric poet as inherently “choral,” since it takes place outside of linear (narrative) time and can thus synthesize multiple temporalities into a single utterance. The lyric essay, though it unfolds over a longer span of time, might be seen as accomplishing something similar: a Whitmanesque multitude refracted through a singular voice. Plurality is one consequence of fragmentation. Perhaps the lyric essay is strengthened not by unidirectional “expounding” but by a lateral spread accompanying its movement through linear time, as its “propositions” multiply. Essay Midsummer. Recently, scholars in various fields have begun to critique linear models of apa format paper references meaning-making in favor of the sprawling “network” or “rhizome.” Caroline Levine writes in her book Forms, “networks might seem altogether formless, perhaps even the antithesis of greatest essay form.” Yet they “have structural properties that can be analyzed in formal terms” (112). The white spaces might be read as the apa format references, necessary separations between nodes of a network, or as intervals between distinct voices that together form a chord. The essay’s plurality might become a kind of extended grasp: “As Henry James put it…‘Really, universally, relations stop nowhere’” (Levine 130).

Or we might view the recent emergence of networks and david wallace essays rhizomes as evidence that there are more ways of paper conceiving of structures—more ways of reading—than we might have previously granted. Cover Ct Tech. My aim is not to advocate for the lyric essay, or for a particular method of reading lyric essays—rather, I want to read the category “lyric essay” as a text, keeping in mind that the apa format, form’s greatest innovation may be an invitation into heightened awareness of our reading strategies: of individual texts, and of genre itself. Because of their plurality, their sprawling network of reference, their refusal of traditional hierarchy, Levine writes that networks can be seen as “emancipatory—politically productive” (112). Database. Productive of what, in this case? Emancipatory for whom? Tall and D’Agata write, “Perhaps we#8217;re drawn to the lyric now because it seems less possible (and rewarding) to approach the world through the front door, through the apa format for research references, myth of are the essential elements of an argumentative objectivity.” They trust their contemporary readers to grant that objectivity is a myth—an an assumption upon which earlier lyric theorists, defending the legitimacy of their field against for research paper references the presumed objectivity of “science” and “reason,” could not necessarily count. D’Agata and Tall do not define the word “lyric,” but by deducing its qualities from those they set it against, we can tell that they associate it with a) the cover letter, unmythlike fact of subjectivity and b) some kind of back door. Or, well, at least not the front. Maybe lyric slips through a side entrance; maybe it tunnels into the basement; maybe it parachutes onto the roof and slides down the chimney. Perhaps the lyric doesn’t enter, just presses its face against a window and longingly observes.

Even in the context of poetry, the meaning of “lyric” is elusive. In their introduction to apa format, The Lyric Theory Reader, Virginia Jackson and Yopie Prins write, “A resistance to definition may be the best basis for definition of the lyric—and of ct tech poetry—we currently have” (2). Lyric is for research paper references, often defined by resume database what it is not: depending on who you ask, it’s not narrative; not long; not traditional; not experimental; not epic; not dramatic; not rhetorical or persuasive; not performative. And yet, somehow, “lyric” has come to stand in for apa format for research paper references, poetry in general, or prose at its most “poetic,” whatever that means. Villain. Jackson and apa format for research Prins speculate, “Perhaps the lyric has become so difficult to define because we need it to be blurry around the edges…to include all kinds of verse and all kinds of ideas about what poetry is resume database, or should be” (1). When critics do define lyric against for research paper something else, it’s often something perceived as normative, some sort of ever “front door.” In one of the most influential discussions of lyric poetry, “Thoughts on Poetry and its Varieties” (1833), John Stuart Mill defined it against the performative rhetorical eloquence of political oratory: “Eloquence is heard, poetry is overheard” (71). In a sentence deleted from the paper references, essay yet printed and widely circulated later, Mill used an image of spatial marginalization to compare the poet to greatest essay ever, someone crying out in a solitary prison cell, overheard by the reader on the other side of the wall.

This spatial metaphor, like D’Agata’s and Tall’s, explicitly eschews the front door—in fact, eschews entrance altogether. For Research. For Mill, the ever, wall between the poet and the reader preserves the authenticity of the poet’s utterance. Uncorrupted by attention to apa format for research paper, rhetoric, which bends it to another’s perceived expectations, the poet’s expression remains pure. Shylock Essay. But the poet knows he’s writing for for research paper, someone. Mill himself admits as much, acknowledging the inherently performative character of lyric: “It may be said that poetry which is printed on hot-pressed paper, and sold at a bookseller#8217;s shop, is cover letter ct tech, a soliloquy in full dress and on the stage….The actor knows that there is an audience present; but if he acts as though he knew it, he acts ill.” In other words, the poet’s art consists of skillfully, publically, pretending to be alone. The concept of the “fourth wall,” the invisible barrier between performer and audience, collapses Mill’s two metaphors and proves that the poet’s solitude is not, in fact, solitude. It’s a triangular relationship between reader, writer, and wall. In Eros the Bittersweet, Anne Carson describes this triangulation as fundamentally erotic: “Where eros is lack, its activation calls for apa format for research, three structural components—lover, beloved and that which comes between them” (16). Lovers and readers fantasize about what elements of an essay freedom, but require structure. “Nonfiction” is perhaps the only genre to for research references, contain a negation in its very name. The category contains everything from journalism to memoir to biography to cover letter, cookbooks.

But it is quite clear about what it refuses. Why is this particular dividing line so bold? John D’Agata, in a special anthology of references Seneca Review essays called We Might as Well Call It the Lyric Essay, argues that Nonfiction developed in response to a perceived threat. He cites a 1903 article in which librarian William Doubleday complains of his patrons’ increasing demand for are the essential, fiction, seen as unserious frippery for passive (usually female) readers. Doubleday prefers “a special form of literature read by young men” who “recognize the sternness of the battle of life” and prepare themselves for apa format for research paper references, it by “serious reading.” In one of the first recorded uses of the term nonfiction, Doubleday uses the eroticized language of advertising to suggest its potential deployment against fiction’s threatening advance: “Attractive works of non-fiction may be temptingly displayed in resume convenient showcases” (5). For Research Paper. Nonfiction has flourished, even sprouted modifiers (journalistic nonfiction, creative nonfiction, etc.) and essay MFA programs. Yet D’Agata complains that the term’s largeness robs it of legitimacy: “Within the span of a single century, ‘non-fiction’ has overshadowed half a dozen other literary terms to become the bland de facto banner that flaps above everything from apa format for research paper journalism to essay, memoir, imposing the same aesthetic standards and apa format references expectations on everything that falls beneath its shadow.” Why is this a problem? Presumably, because the umbrella term has been imposed from the essay, outside, rather than chosen by its practitioners. More particularly, because “our adoption of ‘non-fiction’…has segregated us from art.” Unlike Doubleday, who feared the threat of apa format for research paper references a genre he regarded as feminine and Other, D’Agata is troubled by a tradition he’s writing within—on one side, by the pedantic, fact-fetishizing world of reportage, and on the other, by the fuzzy overshare of the memoir, with its Oprah’s-Book-Club whiff, its trauma narratives hawked for redemption.

The term “lyric essay” brings poetry—he highest of the high literary arts—into the realm of nonfiction. The term ingeniously takes advantage of lyric’s double valence: 1) it definitely means poetic and 2) nobody can agree on what else it might mean. In adopting the villain essay, term “lyric,” the “lyric essay” subtly smuggles in apa format for research paper references the concept of the “Lyric I”—a term that connotes, among other things, the notion that a poem’s speaker can transcend the boundaries of the poet’s actual, historical self. The “Lyric I” has been a site of generative contention, but critics generally agree on one particular paradox: the “I” belongs, at least partially, to are the essential elements of an essay, the poet; yet it would be the paper, worst kind of misreading to of an argumentative, accuse the poem of apa format paper falsehood if it appeared to depart from the poet’s biography. The “Lyric I” provides access to a space in which, as Ben Lerner puts it in his novel 10:04, “the distinction between fiction and nonfiction [doesn’t] obtain…the correspondence between text and world [is] less important than the intensities of the poem itself.” Presumably, D’Agata wants to defend a similar kind of essay midsummer freedom for the lyric essayist, allowing her to construct a persona marked by artful indeterminacy, unhampered by the shackles of fact-checking yet assumed to bear a close relationship to “reality” in all of its “sternness” (unlike fiction, which is a made-up story about fake people). Thus, ingeniously, the term “lyric essay” simultaneously disowns the low-art subgenres on for research paper both sides of the database, fiction-nonfiction border. In allowing for lyric indeterminacy, it repudiates both the dry fact-obsession of the journalist and the solipsistic navel-gaze of the memoirist; yet, by hewing closely to “reality,” it avoids being mistaken for a puffy airbrushed fantasy or a yarn devised for apa format paper references, entertainment.

There is power in naming. Institutionalizing the foster wallace list essays, term “lyric essay” achieves, among other things, a guaranteed career niche for D’Agata, a place for for research paper, him in literary history, firmly within the camp of High Art. More so even than Seneca Review, for which he shares the masthead with his former mentor Deborah Tall, D’Agata’s anthology The Next American Essay stakes his claim on the genre. Next American Essay is an unusual anthology. Essay. It offers 32 essays (including the “prologue” and “epilogue”), ordered chronologically, one for each year, from 1975 to for research paper references, 2003.

Why begin in 1975? Because that was the year D’Agata was born. This choice might seem appropriate for greatest essay, an anthology of for research lyric essays: like a lyric essay, the book is highly personal and essay midsummer poetically idiosyncratic. D’Agata’s introductions to each selection contain personal anecdotes, such as “I was an eight-week-old fetus when my mother first read to me” (she read nonfiction) and “In this year I am fired from my position as News editor of my fifth-grade class’s in-house newspaper… Mrs. Tuttle, who fires me, says I don’t know the difference between nonfiction and art. Apa Format For Research References. Mom says to letter, take this as a compliment” (2, 167). Like a lyric essay, the anthology absorbs and transmutes the contents of apa format for research paper its author’s life even as it discusses his ostensible subject.

The book’s form could be read as an ingenious comment upon lyric essay form itself. And yet there’s something suspiciously self-anointing about it. Though Next American Essay is shylock villain essay, widely regarded as the apa format paper references, defining lyric essay anthology, the term doesn’t show up until page 435, introducing the final selection. The book’s structure thus stealthily posits a narrative with two intertwining threads: D’Agata’s life and what are the elements of an essay the essay’s evolution. The climax of both happens simultaneously, with the apa format for research paper, naming of the lyric essay. As he charts the essential elements of an essay, essay’s forward progress into ever more lyrical territory, D’Agata also reaches backward, gesturing into the decades and apa format for research centuries of literary history long before his birth, as if to show that the consummation of this boy-meets-genre romance was historically inevitable—fated, even. In his commentary, he gestures as far back as Cicero and Sei Shonagon. Plutarch and Plato, he suggests, were proto-lyric essayists. Such transhistorical mapping of genre has its advantages, and may not be entirely self-serving. The term “lyric” itself has been used in a similar way; though many contemporary theorists reach as far back as Sappho for the origin of lyric poetry, Jackson and Prins point out shylock essay that “the concept of lyric as the oldest form of poetic expression is actually a relatively recent notion; specifically, it is a post-Enlightenment idea” that became reified during the Romantic period (2). Apa Format For Research References. Reaching back into history for the presence of the lyric, critics run the risk of anachronistically imposing Romantic constructions of the individual self onto earlier time periods.

Yet Jonathan Culler has defended this broad, transhistorical use of the shylock, term by arguing that such generic classification can provide “the scope to apa format references, activate possibilities occluded by narrower conceptions” (75); it helps critics relate temporally disparate works through tropic similarities, taking us “beyond the period-by-period agenda of our ordinary studies” (75). And yet the ambiguous nature of D’Agata’s structural move—at best a lyrical gesture in and of itself, at worst simply careerist—seems at are the essential elements argumentative essay least worth acknowledging. In a widely read essay in The Believer, Ben Marcus heaped praise on paper the anthology: “D’Agata’s transitions alone, which show how alive an anthology can be, and would make any editor envious… could outfit a whole new generation of writers with the skills to launch an impressive and relevant movement of writing.” I don’t disagree with Marcus, not exactly; I found D’Agata’s transitions artful, too. But, especially if D’Agata is david, helping to “launch” a “movement,” it seems important to examine the story of for research that movement, and recognize other ways of essay centering it than with his birth. There is power in naming, and not just for the namer: once the apa format, “lyric essay” existed as such, writers could write into the fledgling genre, expand its territory from ct tech within. As Eula Biss writes in her essay “It is What it Is,” published in Seneca Review’s 2007 issue, “Naming something is a way of giving it permission to exist” (55).

Of course, essayists were writing lyrically long before D’Agata and Tall and the Seneca Review; the anthology’s transhistorical focus proves as much. Furthermore, D’Agata never claims to have been the first person to paper references, utter the term—just to institutionalize it. The term caught on essay partly because it described something people were already doing, that had only lacked a unifying generic label. The fact that they continued to apa format for research paper references, do so once that name existed, perhaps more visibly, should not be viewed as an argument that anyone needed the permission of D’Agata or of Seneca Review to resume database, create such work. And yet, when a writer sits down to write something, she must consider form. Some writers ascribe an anthropomorphic agency to their own writing, investing it with a desire to take a particular shape; they claim to postpone thoughts of form until after the writing has stewed long enough in apa format for research references formal indeterminacy to villain, “know what it wants to be,” or that they’ll begin writing in one form and apa format for research references another form will “take over.” Perhaps it’s possible to sit down and enter some blank formless state of receptivity and accept whatever the muse provides. Cover. But personally, I can’t imagine beginning writing without a specific formal aim—to write a comic short story, or an argumentative essay, or a sonnet. Things often change as I write, but beginning the apa format for research paper references, process is difficult enough without being able to envision the shape I’m approximating, the container I’m trying to fill.

Once the term “lyric essay” became institutionalized by journals like Seneca Review, a writer could sit down and intend to write a lyric essay. Maybe she’d already been doing so, with or without the term in mind, but now she could write with more clarity about her aims and shylock audience. Paper. She might know how to “market” her essay, and to whom. This intentionality, crudely teleological and possibility-limiting as it might seem, can be experienced as a kind of freedom. Biss has described the form as “organic to the way I think” (57). What a gift, to discover a container whose shape mimics one’s thoughts so faithfully that it seems transparent. This isn’t in any way to argue against generic indeterminacy; I’m excited by works that break form. List Essays. But it’s my feeling that formal codifications can be generative: the more rules there are, the for research references, more potential sites of identification exist—also, the shylock, more rules there are to break. To address the apa format paper, term “marketing”: it seems silly to resume, use the term in this context, when no one is making much money off lyric essays. But there’s a different kind of apa format paper references capital at cover letter ct tech stake here, the kind associated with “high art.” Not only “cultural capital,” but actual money in the form of fellowships, grants, and lucrative university jobs. To make space in the “high art” realm for a type of writing is to confer power on those who practice it.

So who are today’s lyric essayists? If indeed the lyric essay sidesteps the “front doors” of journalism, memoir and fiction in order to apa format for research, open a portal into are the essential, a new literary space, then who is being invited? Who is crashing the party? Who is notably absent? 3. References. GENRE AND GENDER.

For all her gratitude at what the term “lyric essay” has permitted her to discover and cover letter articulate, Biss remains suspicious: “I suspect that genre, like gender, with which it shares a root, is mostly a collection of lies we have agreed to believe” (56). Indeed, as many have noted, “genre” and “gender” both concern form and classification. Like most taxonomic classifications, both genre and gender are somewhat arbitrary; they have hidden agendas. They are both simultaneously fictive abstractions and categories that shape lived reality. The name “essay,” famously, comes from a verb that means “to weigh” or “to try,” highlighting the paper, genre’s emphasis on greatest ever process, its willingness to embrace indeterminacy. Citing these qualities, David Lazar argues that the essay is paper, inherently a “queer” genre: “The gender category difficult to characterize by normative standards is queer. The genre category difficult or impossible to characterize, the essay, is also queer…. The desire of the essay is to essay, transgress genre” (19-20). Lazar personifies the essay as a desiring subject in order to plead against carving it up into apa format paper, sub-genres; the term “lyric essay,” he argues, restricts the essay’s freedom by resume database making it “genre normative” (20). Apa Format. When writing about genre, there’s a tendency—almost a cliche—to disparage its limits, to shylock essay, gesture longingly towards an over-the-rainbow world beyond it. Ben Marcus writes, “Once upon a time there will be readers who won’t care what imaginative writing is called and will read it for its passion, its force of intellect, and for its formal originality.” But don’t we long for labels, too?

What would a world without them look like? Could “formal originality” exist without definitions of form? In her book The Argonauts, Maggie Nelson shares an anecdote from references her friend Christina Crosby, a professor of feminist theory, whose class “threw a kind of ever coup”: “they were tired of dismantling identities, tired of hearing that the most resistance one could muster in a Foucauldian universe was to work the trap one is paper, inevitably in. So they staged a walkout and held class in a private setting, to which they invited Christina as a guest. When people arrived, Christina told me, a student handed everyone an index card and asked them to write ‘how they identified’ on it, then pin it to their lapel. Christina was mortified…she’d spent a lifetime complicating and deconstructing identity and teaching others to do the same, and now, as if in a tier of hell, she was being handed an index card and a Sharpie and being told to squeeze a Homeric epithet onto resume it” (59). This anecdote comically illustrates how both our lust for classification and apa format for research paper references our rejection of it might spring from a similar source—an urge to accurately limn reality. As Nelson puts the dilemma: “On the one hand, the Aristotelian, perhaps evolutionary need to put everything into categories—predator, twilight, edible—on the essay, other, the need to pay homage to the transitive, the flight, the great soup of being in which we actually live” (53). This duality, both vexing and productive, motivates many writers and critics.

Maybe this is for research paper, why we’re tempted to villain, personify our own writing as desirous, to imagine it capable of paper willing transgression. Transgression is sexy. Think of overhearing, of eavesdropping; of scaling walls to reach the unseen beloved; of back-door entrances to speakeasies with complex passwords. But every transgression requires a boundary. Christina Crosby’s story captures the confusion that can result when a category like “feminism” is transgressed from within: such transgressions, paradoxically, require the proliferation of walls.

By rejecting her supposedly hierarchical teaching methods, Crosby’s students were required to reify new categories of self-definition. Presumably, Lazar’s distaste for what of an essay, the institutionalization of the “lyric essay” shares something with Crosby’s distaste at being handed that Sharpie. If, as noted above, ever-more-subtle classifications might become generative sites of identification and/or resistance, Lazar and Crosby remind us that they can constrict and chafe as well. Apa Format For Research Paper. So what new wall might be reified by list essays the “lyric essay” in order to name the transgression it seeks to for research, perform? Who might be liberated, and who “mortified,” by this taxonomic move? One concept that’s being transgressed is that of the “fact.” In a review of D’Agata’s book The Lifespan of a Fact, Lee Gutkind describes hearing one of database his colleagues use “D’Agata” as a verb. “I totally D’Agata’d this,” she says, meaning “that she had fudged her story, made some of it up.” Gutkind is the references, protective father, if not actual originator, of the are the elements of an, term “creative nonfiction,” which of course rivals “lyric essay.” Many writers and critics use the two terms interchangeably, or see lyric essay as the sub-genre, but the terms of the turf war between these two generic godfathers themselves are starkly clear: Creative Nonfiction, the journal Gutkind edits, fact-checks assiduously, while Gutkind imagines that D’Agata, on hearing his name used as a synonym for paper, fictionalizing, “would be pleased.” The Lifespan of a Fact consists of the record of correspondence between D’Agata and Jim Fingal, his fact-checker at The Believer on a story about a teenager’s suicide that had been rejected by Harper’s due to factual inaccuracies. D’Agata is unapologetic about his strategy of altering facts for the sake of “art”: “When Fingal proves that there are 31 strip clubs in greatest essay ever Las Vegas and not 34 as D’Agata claimed, D’Agata says: “The rhythm of ‘34’ was better in the sentence than the rhythm of apa format for research paper references ‘31,’ so I changed it.” What is the difference between importing the greatest, artfully indeterminate “Lyric I” into apa format, the realm of nonfiction, as a way of granting power to foster essays, subjectivity, and simply making shit up? Does such a distinction matter? D’Agata claims not to care, but I side with Gutkind in suspecting that there’s a difference between “queering genre” and borrowing the authority of one genre, on bad credit, to for research paper, bolster the profile of another.

Furthermore: does such a maverick stance towards “fact” betray a certain kind of presumption? One wonders how a writer might reliably distinguish between irrelevant facts—facts that can be smudged for the sake of resume database art—and facts on which others’ lives and legal futures might hinge. I’m not saying that the for research, facts D’Agata changed fell into the latter category—but I’m not sure I would trust myself, or anyone else outside of the story, to are the of an essay, know the difference. Apa Format For Research Paper References. To assume such power is to unquestioningly assume one’s right to narrate another’s reality. Gutkind goes farther: “The market for cover ct tech, lyric essays is apa format for research paper, limited at ever best. Perhaps this new book’s lame idea, that art supersedes fact, is D’Agata’s foray into self-promotion and image-building in paper the creative writing academy. That—and not the general public—seems to be his target audience.” So here is the High Art thing again. Not all “lyric essays” play fast and loose with the facts, and most of them don’t pretend to resume, be journalism anyway. But still: does the “back door” of lyric lead, perhaps, not to a shadowy speakeasy but to a rarefied academic cocktail party, one whose attendees can afford to apa format paper references, scoff at the banality of “fact?” Perhaps D’Agata can be forgiven for conflating the creative writing academy with some kind of marginal space: it hardly holds the cachet of other, longer-standing, more traditionally prestigious academic departments. It may be growing, but perhaps a scrappy underdog feeling still clings to it.

Many public debates have been held, for example, about whether MFA programs are inherently anti-intellectual. Even so, if the traditional academy is what the lyric essay seeks to transgress—well, I’m not sure this is a transgression that interests me. But perhaps I’ve been paying too much attention to D’Agata, because his voice is so difficult to miss. When I was an wallace essays undergraduate, I sang in the Yale Women’s Slavic Chorus, which was formed in 1969, the first year women were admitted to the university. Its origin story: when a group of women petitioned to join the apa format for research references, long-established Russian Chorus, they were denied, but one of its members volunteered to teach them Bulgarian women’s vocal music. Today, the Yale Women’s Slavic Chorus is still going; their gatherings and concerts are still the foster, weirdest, loudest, most joyous, most unapologetically female events I’ve ever attended.

Sometimes the original male founder comes to these gatherings and hangs around. He tells anyone who asks that he founded the chorus, that he is responsible for its existence; if you smile appreciatively and appear willing to listen, he’ll quip that he did so “to meet girls.” But it’s obvious, once the apa format for research paper references, music starts—once the “girls” open their throats and start hollering—that none of it’s really about villain him. I’m not saying D’Agata is that guy. For Research Paper References. (For one thing, he’s not standing on the sidelines; he’s singing too.) But I suggest the analogy to frame the ever, different kinds of apa format for research paper references ownership that might be at letter stake here. In Next American Essay, D’Agata writes, “In Italy stanza means ‘a room.’ In Spain stanza means ‘a shelter.’ In France…stanza can be used to describe ‘a stance’—a way of carrying oneself” (382). I like the little volta of this third definition.

What if genre is less like a house than a way of holding the body—of inviting the body to speak? Maggie Nelson in Bluets: “One image of the intellectual: a man who loses his eyesight not out of shame (Oedipus) but in order to think more clearly (Milton). Apa Format For Research. I try to avoid generalities when it comes to the business of gender, but in all honesty I must admit that I simply cannot conceive of a version of female intelligence that would advocate such a thing. An ‘abortion of the resume database, mind, this purity’ (W.C. Williams)” (55). Gender is a slippery, often-misleading signifier, but it’s also a lived reality. Being female makes it difficult to forget that one has a body, that one is a body.

Susan Griffin echoes Nelson’s critique of this brain-in-a-jar model in her essay “Red Shoes.” “Without the body,” she writes, “it is apa format paper references, impossible to conceive of thought existing. Yet the central trope of our intellectual heritage is of a transcendent, disembodied mind” (306). What Essential Elements Argumentative Essay. Such a notion, she argues, is a fantasy of liberation that itself becomes a kind of cage: “The idea of an entirely autonomous mind has a subtext, and that is the desire for unlimited freedom from natural limitations…. And yet limitations are a necessary predisposition for apa format paper references, any existence, including the existence of david something we suppose to apa format for research references, be abstract and shylock cerebral, like the essay. And when the essay is built on the purposeful ‘forgetting’ of the body, these limitations paradoxically grow greater.” (306) Jenny Boully’s essay “The Body,” also included in The Next American Essay, consists exclusively of footnotes. Some of its pages are almost entirely blank. The essay’s title refers not only to its own absent “body of text,” but to the physical body of its lyric speaker.

Thus, the essay simultaneously relegates the female body to its margins and casts such marginalia as its central concern. The last thing I want to do is suggest some kind of easy relationship between gender and literary form, to argue that women are predisposed to write in apa format references a certain way. And yet, for many, writing about gendered experience presents a paradox: how to represent the robustness of essay ever one’s own lived experience while also representing the experience of obscurity, of erasure? How to explore the messy, fluid realities of the body without sacrificing so much linearity that one’s work is labeled incoherent or unreadable? How to transcend the “diminutive,” the traditionally “feminine,” without devaluing it? Susan Griffin again: “Is it possible to apa format paper references, write in a form that is both immersed and distant, farseeing and swallowed?

I am thinking now that this is what women have been attempting in the last decades. Not simply to enter the resume, world of masculine discourse but to transform it with another kind of knowledge” (315). The lyric essay, with its associative logic and its openness to visuality as a tool of meaning-making, may in fact be more suitable than other forms for expressing embodied truths—especially those previously neglected, those experienced in the gaps between sanctioned “facts.” It may offer unique tools for expressing the presence of absences. Perhaps this is why many notable female writers, especially those interested in writing about and through their female bodies, seem to excel at the lyric essay, to apa format paper references, find the ever, genre a congenial home: Maggie Nelson, Jenny Boully, Susan Griffin, Anne Carson, Eula Biss, Mary Ruefle, Brenda Miller—among many others. Perhaps the celebration of these writers could not have happened earlier, when women were less represented in the literary mainstream. References. That same mainstream is also, conveniently, more receptive now to regarding embodied and fragmentary writing as art, as a valued form of intellection rather than an avoidance of it. Griffin’s and Boully’s presence in The Next American Essay indicates the acceptance of their writing by the creative writing establishment. Today, such writers are valued not as quirky token voices but as formal innovators.

The essays mentioned above do not necessarily represent the dizzyingly diverse genre as a whole, in either their form or their concerns; even if I could, I’m not really interested in proving that they are, or that the lyric essay is somehow a “female” genre—to do so would be to essentialize, and to run the risk of ghettoizing. (Besides: even the term “female” feels, these days, like an outmoded category in need of renovation.) But these examples serve to foster wallace list, highlight the folly of separating “identity politics” from paper references studies of “form,” as many critics still insist on doing. Essays like Boully’s show how formal innovation can arise, at least partially, out essay midsummer of the urgent need to explore the lived reality of a particular identity. It seems to me that any genre proving hospitable to such efforts should be welcomed. Despite Lazar’s objections, “queerness” might not be hampered by for research paper references generic reification: the cover letter ct tech, lyric essay potentially gives high-art sanction to all sorts of experiments. For Research Paper References. And not just those by women, or queer writers. If the what elements, lyric essay’s associative structure, its deployment of visual tropes and of blank space, are tools particularly suited to exploring the for research references, bright mess of embodied experience, then the essay midsummer, genre opens new possibilities for anyone with a body. Paradoxically, it also seems well-suited for exploration of the disembodied, the fragmentary, the flashbulb immediacy and ephemerality of the Internet age. Sarah Menkedick skeptically writes in “Narrative of Fragments” that the lyric essay’s form, which seems to for research, both represent and invite interruption of the letter, reader’s attention, “is as easy to consume as a Flickr slideshow, as successive sound bites on CNN, although in its language and content as a whole it intends to paper, be difficult and tries for Barthesian jouissance.” Maybe—but to me, this paradox seems less like hypocrisy than evidence of a messy, invigorating attempt to reckon with disruption. David Wallace List Essays. In this post-postmodern age, even writers who might have previously benefited from the illusion of apa format for research references a unified, separable self are forced to confront the reality of fragmentation, and find new ways to express it.

David Shields writes in essay midsummer “Reality Hunger” that he prefers lyric essay to fiction because it is, well, more “real”: “We want work to be equal to the complexity of experience, memory, and thought, not flattening it out” (83). The lyric essay borrows fiction’s interiority while letting go of its fidelity to the potentially “flattening” linearity of narrative. In doing so, it invites the reader into apa format paper, a crystalline structure of thought that—like a rhizome or network—might resemble chaos and essay formlessness at first, but upon closer look, might accurately represent the bright mess of apa format for research a particular mind, inside a particular body, inside the vivid confusions of shylock essay our shared world. Paper. I suspect that most practitioners of the lyric essay, whatever they think of the term itself and its relation to identity politics, would resonate with Susan Griffin’s rhetorical questions in “Red Shoes”: “Bringing the public world of the essay and the inner world of fiction together, is essay ever, something sacrificed? The high ground? Perspective?

Distance? Or is for research paper, it instead a posture of detachment that is greatest essay ever, renounced, a position of superiority? The position of one who is not immersed, who is unaffected, untouched? (This is, of course, the ultimate ‘fiction.’)” (314) At its best, the lyric essay accurately locates the for research paper, writer in the “great soup of being” —the confusions of lived time, the jagged shape of essential of an argumentative essay thought, the for research paper references, betrayals and silences of the body. 4. THE WHITE SPACES (RECONSIDERED) I’ve typed the phrase “white spaces” so many times now that I can’t help but focus on the word “white.” Blank pages are usually white. But that doesn’t mean they are innocent. Database. Claudia Rankine’s recent book Citizen has been called a lyric essay. Though most reviews labeled it as poetry, its formal indeterminacy and plurality have invited a variety of classifications. Either way, the subtitle, “An American Lyric,” seems to apa format for research paper references, invite the greatest essay ever, reader to treat the book’s speaker with the generative indeterminacy, the choral plurality, of a “Lyric I”; Rankine has said that this speaker, who explores the lived experience of Black subjectivity in America, conveys experiences that are her own as well as those of people she knows. The book mostly eschews the “I” itself in favor of for research paper a second-person “you”; this “you” could represent the speaker’s plurality, or her dissociation from resume herself.

Or it could be addressed to the reader: a potential invitation, a potential accusation. Many associate whiteness with blankness, innocence. But Rankine’s book reminds us that whiteness is more like willful ignorance, disavowed knowledge. It’s a highly complex set of codes and for research references privileges, disguised as normative neutrality. To equate whiteness with blankness is shylock, a refusal of knowledge—or of acknowledgment. Citizen’s spare blocks of prose on blinding-white paper serve to underline this notion: to force the apa format, reader to confront whiteness as part of the text, to elements of an essay, confront whatever she projects onto it in response to its difficult (and notably black) “propositions.” One notable absence in The Next American Essay: writers of color. D’Agata cops to the anthology’s demographics in his introduction: “There are 19 men in apa format for research paper references here, 13 women. Twenty-nine are Americans; 1 is cover, a Mexican; 1 is Canadian. There’s a Native American, a Korean American, an apa format for research paper references African American, a Thai American.

I’ll bet you there are probably some gay people, too” (1). I guess he figures he’ll get points for honesty. But, as Nelson writes in The Argonauts, “The notion of privilege as something to which one could ‘easily cop,’ as in ‘cop once and be done with,’ is ridiculous. Privilege saturates; privilege structures” (97). For an anthology of 32 writers to contain only one African-American, and only five writers of color in total, is striking—particularly striking when the words “Next” and “American” are in its title. What Are The Elements Of An Argumentative Essay. In the for research paper references, “Next America,” the one on the verge of being, Americans of color will outnumber their white compatriots. Essay. (We Might as Well Call it the Lyric Essay isn’t much better: just 3 writers of references color out of 15 total—demographics presumably representative of Seneca Review as a whole.) So are writers of color particularly under-represented in this fledgling genre? Or in John D’Agata’s mind?

Or do these numbers reflect the essay midsummer, larger inequities of the publishing world, of society? If I had to guess, I’d blame the exclusion not only on apa format D’Agata’s personal blind spots but on a persistent yet misguided notion in the Academy that “high art” and “identity politics” are inherently contradictory. Either way, there are many wonderful writers of ct tech color who might be called “lyric essayists.” Roxane Gay, Toni Morrison, Judy Ruiz, Maxine Hong Kingston, perhaps even James Baldwin. And more—certainly, many that remain unknown to me. It would be unfair to disown my own complicity in apa format references this; writers of color have rightly taken white writers like me to task for not looking harder, past the gatekeepers’ darlings. But if such writers remain outside of the anthologies and publications considered to be genre-normative—to define the standards by which the lyric essay is recognized and marketed—that says something.

For one thing, it says that we need some new anthologies. If the lyric essay does in fact open up new and exciting possibilities for embodied writing within the realm of High Art, it should not, in its excitement at finally being invited, neglect to look around and see who is resume, still absent. Apa Format. Still, I would like to insist on seeing the lyric essay’s blank spaces as sites of possibility for everyone—if only because, in insisting, we might make it so. An essay by novelist Claire Vaye Watkins, “On Pandering,” recently went viral. Letter Ct Tech. Watkins decries the way in which her own internalized misogyny shaped her first book, while calling herself out on for research her frequent blindness to her own white privilege: “Myself, I have been writing to impress old white men.” Like Watkins, I recognize the presence in my writing-brain of a “tiny white man.” And yet as a female writer I’ve been invigorated by essay midsummer identifying patriarchal structures so as to depart from them—to conceive of myself as writing into some other place yet to be mapped. I might, at apa format paper references times, bemoan the resume, inescapability of the apa format for research paper references, patriarchy (Nelson in The Argonauts: “There is no control group. I don’t even want to talk about essay ‘female sexuality’ until there is a control group.

And there never will be.” (66)) But maybe there’s value in having a structure against which to apa format for research, rebel. We might fantasize some pure organic form—some control-group form—but new forms have always ruptured older ones in order to bring themselves into existence. It would be impossible, especially for essay, me, to paper references, compare gender and race; among other offenses, doing so would deny the existence of intersectionality. Villain. But perhaps racist and sexist structures can resemble each other both in the erasures they inflict and the ways in which their charged, dubiously defended borders might invite a kind of apa format for research references generative violation. Destruction can be a powerful kind of creation. Watkins ends her essay with a battle cry: “Let us, each of us, write things that are uncategorizable, rather than something that panders to essay midsummer, and condones and apa format for research paper codifies those categories. Let us burn this motherfucking system to the ground and build something better.” Yes, let’s—even if the old structures won’t disappear entirely; we’ll always be reacting against them, to some degree. Still, we can salvage that obsolete front door and make a window out of greatest ever it. Even as we cast a critical eye on the lyric essay’s institutional origins, even as we strive to make it a more inclusive space (or publically recognize it as the more inclusive space it already is), we can celebrate what its relative newness, its relative hybridity, might make possible for writers ready to articulate bold new truths. No, there will never be a control group. But what there can be: a breakage, a re-shuffling.

The result of breakage: a proliferation of edge, of space. A new arrangement of truths, a different kind of meaning. Biss, Eula. For Research References. “It is What it Is.” Seneca Review , Fall 2007: pages 55-60. Boully, Jenny. Greatest Essay. “The Body.” In The Next American Essay , ed. John D’Agata.

Minneapolis, MN: Graywolf Press, 2003. Pages 435-466. Cameron, Sharon. Lyric Time: Dickinson and the Limits of for research paper references Genre . Baltimore and. London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1979. Carson, Anne. Eros the Bittersweet . Champaign and London: Dalkey Archive Press, Culler, Jonathan. “Lyric, History and Genre.” In The Lyric Theory Reader . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2014. Pages 63-76. Ever. D’Agata, John, ed. The Next American Essay . For Research Paper. Minneapolis, MN: Graywolf Press, 2003.

D’Agata, John. “What’s In A Name?” In We Might As Well Call It the cover, Lyric Essay , ed. Apa Format For Research Paper. John D’Agata. Geneva, NY: Hobart and William Smith Colleges Press, 2014. D’Agata, John, and are the of an argumentative Deborah Tall. “The Lyric Essay.” Seneca Review , Fall 2007. Web. 10 December 2015.

Garner, Dwight. “With Storms Outside, Inner Conflicts Swirl: In Ben Lerner’s 10:04, New York is a Character.” The New York Times . 2 Sept, 2014. Web. Apa Format. 8 December, 2015. Database. Griffin, Susan. “Red Shoes.” In The Next American Essay , ed. John D’Agata.

Minneapolis, MN: Graywolf Press, 2003. Pages 301-215. Gutkind, Lee. “Doing a D’Agata.” Los Angeles Review of for research Books , 19 March 2002. Web. 8 December 2015. Jackson, Virginia, and Yopie Prins. “General Introduction.” In The Lyric Theory. Reader . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2014. Pages 1-10.

Koestenbaum, Wayne. “Assignments.” Seneca Review , Fall 2007: pages 15-18. Lazar, David. “Queering the Essay.” Essay Review , Volume I Issue I, Spring 2013: Levine, Caroline. Forms: Whole, Rhythm, Hierarchy, Network . Princeton Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2015. Marcus, Ben. “On the Lyric Essay.” The Believer , July 2013. Web. 10 December 2015. Menkedick, Sarah. Ever. “Narrative of Fragments.” The New Inquiry , July 3, 2014.

Web. 10. Mill, John Stuart. “Thoughts on apa format for research paper Poetry and Its Varieties.” In Dissertations and. Discussions . Greatest. London: Savill and Edwards, 1859. Nelson, Maggie. The Argonauts . Minneapolis, MN: Graywolf Press, 2015. Nelson, Maggie.

Bluets . Seattle and New York: Wave Books, 2009. Rankine, Claudia. Citizen: An American Lyric . Minneapolis, MN: Graywolf Press, Shields, David. “Reality Hunger.” Seneca Review , Fall 2007: pages 79-91. Apa Format References. Watkins, Claire Vaye. “On Pandering.” In Tin House , 23 November 2015. Web. 10.

Amy Bonnaffons#8217;s writing has appeared in The New York Times , Kenyon Review , The Sun , The Literary Review , and elsewhere. She is a founding editor of 7?7, a journal that publishes collaborations between writers and visual artists. Amy holds an MFA in Creative Writing from New York University and is currently working on a PhD in cover letter ct tech English at the University of Georgia. A New York native, she currently resides in Athens, GA.

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. The SAT Essay is scored separately from the rest of the apa format SAT now, thanks to the changes that went into effect in March 2016. While the essay is now optional (you don't automatically have to take it every time you take the SAT), some colleges still require students to submit SAT essay scores with their applications. Learning how to consistently write a perfect SAT essay will be a huge boost to your application to these schools. In this article, we'll discuss what it takes to get a perfect 8/8/8 on the SAT essay and what you need to do to shylock villain, train yourself to get this top score. If you’re reading this, we’re assuming that you already have a basic understanding of the SAT essay.

You know the standard format of how you should write an essay – introduction, evidence paragraph 1, evidence paragraph 2, (optional) evidence paragraph 3, conclusion. You know that you should state your thesis in the introduction. All of this will get you a 5/8 as long as you develop your points enough. If you aren’t fully aware of this, take a spin through our 15 SAT Essay tips to raise your essay score. But how do you push your essay to the next level? That’s what this article is about. feature image credit: NEW YORK 1970'S TRAILER PLATE 888-883 by Jerry Woody, used under CC BY-SA 2.0/Cropped from original.

You’ll have to apa format for research paper references, practice this. The perfect SAT essay is like a puzzle that happens to be in resume, written form – it can be mastered, but to do it well and completely every time requires practice with a lot of sample topics. For Research! You need to learn the format of an effective essay and essay ever how to fill out paper references a complete essay within 50 minutes. What an SAT Essay Score of 8 Means. If you’re already scoring a 5 or above in resume, all three areas on practice (or real) SAT essays, you have a shot at completely nailing what the graders want, represented by a score of apa format paper, 8/8/8, with a little practice. But there’s something important to remember in villain, your question for perfection: on the SAT essay, an 8 in all categories is not always achievable. We’ve got good news and bad news for those of you who are determined to score an 8/8/8 on the SAT essay. Good News and for research references Bad News by Mike Licht, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped from original.

Because the whole essay task (reading, analyzing, planning, and elements of an argumentative writing) must be completed in 50 minutes, getting an 8 in apa format for research references, Reading, Analysis, and Writing requires some luck. You have to read the elements argumentative article and for research analyze the way the author builds her/his argument, pick out the most important components to the argument, find evidence to support your interpretation, and plan out your essay before you can even start writing. A lot depends on how quickly you can come up with a thesis and relevant support for whatever the prompt happens to be – you might find some articles easier to read and are the argumentative essay analyze the argumentative structure of than others. You'll need to use precise language to show mastery of for research paper, English writing. And because essays with perfect scores are almost always at resume, least two pages long, you don't have any time to spare . If you fumble on any one of apa format references, these aspects, the grader might not give your SAT essay an 8/8/8. Because the essay is of an so formulaic, it's always possible to paper references, get a reliable 6 across the board . Sometimes you might find the author's argument to analyze harder than others, or sometimes you might find the article more difficult to get through, but you will always be able to impress them enough to get a 6/6/6. No college worth its salt is going to base your college admissions decision on getting those last two points on resume database, an essay you had 50 minutes to apa format for research, write (especially when the essay is optional). Essay Midsummer! The goal, really, is to show that you can write a decent essay in that time, and a 6/6/6 shows that just as well as an apa format paper references, 8/8/8 does. But you should aim as high as you can, so keep reading to find out essay ever what it really takes to get a perfect score on the SAT essay. The Difference Between a 6 and an 8.

If we asked the College Board what the difference is between a 6 and an 8 SAT essay, they would direct us to their scoring criteria below that describes the difference between the 3 and 4 essays scores in Reading, Analysis, and Writing (a total score of 8 comes from two readers separately giving your essay a 4 in each of those three areas). We’ve marked the differences between the 3 and 4 criteria in bold. The response demonstrates effective comprehension of the source text. The response shows an understanding of the text’s central idea(s) and apa format paper references important details. The response is free of substantive errors of fact and interpretation with regard to cover ct tech, the text. Apa Format References! The response makes appropriate use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating an understanding of the source text. The response demonstrates thorough comprehension of the what are the essential elements of an argumentative essay source text. Apa Format References! The response shows an understanding of the text’s central idea(s) and of most important details and how they interrelate, demonstrating a comprehensive understanding of the text.

The response is david wallace essays free of errors of fact or interpretation with regard to the text. Paper! The response makes skillful use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating a complete understanding of the source text. A 3 essay demonstrates your understanding of the text’s central ideas, while a 4 essay also shows that you know what the essay midsummer details and examples in the text are and how they relate to paper, the central idea . The response offers an effective analysis of the villain source text and demonstrates an understanding of the analytical task. The response competently evaluates the author’s use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the student’s own choosing. The response contains relevant and sufficient support for claim(s) or point(s) made. The response focuses primarily on those features of the text that are most relevant to addressing the task.

The response offers an paper references, insightful analysis of the source text and resume database demonstrates a sophisticated understanding of the for research analytical task. The response offers a thorough, well-considered evaluation of the author’s use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the student’s own choosing. The response contains relevant, sufficient, and what of an essay strategically chosen support for claim(s) or point(s) made. Apa Format For Research Paper! The response focuses consistently on cover, those features of the for research text that are most relevant to addressing the task. The 4 essay delves into the structure of the wallace essays author’s argument more deeply. The writer not only states the techniques used in apa format for research, the text, but also thoroughly explains their impact on the reader. These explanations are backed up with evidence from the text that enhances the writer’s discussion of the structure of the greatest ever text. The response is mostly cohesive and demonstrates effective use and control of language. The response includes a central claim or implicit controlling idea. The response includes an effective introduction and conclusion.

The response demonstrates a clear progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the apa format paper references essay. The response has variety in sentence structures. The response demonstrates some precise word choice. The response maintains a formal style and david foster wallace essays objective tone. The response shows a good control of the conventions of standard written English and is free of significant errors that detract from the quality of writing.

The response is cohesive and paper demonstrates a highly effective use and command of language. The response includes a precise central claim. The response includes a skillful introduction and conclusion. The response demonstrates a deliberate and highly effective progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the villain essay. The response has a wide variety in sentence structures. The response demonstrates a consistent use of precise word choice. The response maintains a formal style and objective tone.

The response shows a strong command of the conventions of standard written English and is free or virtually free of errors . The 4 essay is written extremely well , whereas the 3 essay is paper written fairly well. In addition, the 4 essay is organized in a way that positively influences the impact of the writer’s argument, while the villain 3 is just organized clearly. Let’s condense the references information above. A perfect 4 essay : is extremely clear is consistent, smooth, and easy to read has few errors is not repetitive in content or language is sufficiently detailed (using evidence from the text) to greatest, fully support the writer’s thesis demonstrates that you understand the text and the author’s claim(s) In other words, you need to excel in every one of these aspects to get a perfect score. Now we’ll look at a sample 8/8/8 SAT essay, and apa format for research paper make note of how it fits the criteria above. What Essential Elements Of An Argumentative! The prompt (taken from apa format for research references The Official SAT Study Guide ) for the sample essay is as follows: Write an essay in which you explain how Peter S. Goodman builds an argument to database, persuade his audience that news organizations should increase the for research paper amount of professional foreign news coverage provided to people in the United States. In your essay, analyze how Goodman uses one or more of the features listed in the box above (or features of your own choice) to strengthen the logic and persuasiveness of his argument.

Be sure that your analysis focuses on the most relevant features of the passage. The passage to which this prompt refers appears on cover ct tech, pp. 183-185 of The Official SAT Study Guide (March 2016 Beyond) , or on slightly different pages in later editions. Apa Format Paper References! You'll need the essay passage to follow along with the sample essay below. Here’s the essay. Read it first, and we’ll have annotations below. In the article “Foreign News at a Crisis Point,” Peter S. Goodman eloquently argues the ‘point’ that news organizations should increase the amount of professional foreign news coverage provided to people in apa format for research, the United States. Goodman builds his argument by using facts and evidence, addressing the foster wallace essays counterarguments, and couching it all in persuasive and compelling language. Goodman begins the apa format references article by bombarding the reader with facts and david foster wallace essays statistics. He states that, according to a census conducted by the American Journalism Review, the number of full-time foreign news correspondents in the United States dropped from 307 in 2003 to 234 in 2011.

In addition, the AJR survey also discovered that “the space devoted to foreign news [in American papers] had shrunk by apa format references 53 percent” in the last 25 years. Beginning the article with all of these facts and figures has a couple of strengtheing effects on Goodman’s argument. First, by starting out with hard evidence, Goodman lays the groundwork of his own credibility. He’s not just writing an essential essay, opinion piece – his opinion is backed by the truth. This will bring the apa format for research readers onboard and shylock villain essay make them more likely to trust everything else he says.

Second, because Goodman presents these facts without much explaining/interpreting, the reader is forced to do the math herself. Paper References! This engaging of the reader’s mind also ensures that Goodman has the reader’s attention. When the reader does the math to find a drop of cover ct tech, 73 full-time foreign news correspondents employed by apa format for research paper references US papers in just 8 short years, she will find herself predisposed to agree with Goodman’s call for more professional foreign news reporting. In addition to employing facts to his argument’s advantage, Goodman also cunningly discusses the counterargument to his position. By writing about how social media and man-on-the-ground reporting has had some positive impact on the state of foreign news reporting, Goodman heads off naysayers at the pass. It would have been very easy for Goodman to elide over david foster wallace list essays the whole issue of citizen reporting, but the resultant one-sided argument would have been much less convincing. Instead, Goodman acknowledges things like “the force of social media during the Arab Spring, as activists convened and for research reacted to changing circumstances.” As a result, when he partially refutes this counterargument, stating the “unease” many longtime profession correspondents feel over the trend of ‘citizen journalism’ feel, the resume database reader is much more likely to believe him. Apa Format For Research Paper References! After all, Goodman acknowledges that social media does have some power.

Knowing that Goodman takes the power of social media seriously will make the elements argumentative essay reader more inclined, in apa format for research references, turn, to take Goodman’s concern about the limits of social media seriously. The final piece that helps bolster Goodman’s argument that US news organizations should have more professional foreign correspondents is Goodman’s linguistic + stylistic choices. Goodman uses contrasts to draw the reader deeper into his mindset. By setting up the essay midsummer contrast between professional reporters as “informational filters” that discriminate good from bad and amateur, man-on-the-spot reporters as undiscriminating “funnels,” Goodman forces the reader to view the two in opposition and apa format for research paper admit that professional filters are to be preferred over funnels that add “speculatio, propaganda, and other white noise” to their reporting. In addition, Goodman drives the reader along toward agreeing with his conclusion in the penultimate paragraph of the article with the essay midsummer repetition of the apa format for research phrase “We need.” With every repetition, Goodman hammers even further home the inescapable rightness of his argument.

The use of “We” more generally through the article serves to make the readers feel sympathetic towards Goodman and identify with him. By employing the david foster wallace rhetorical techniques of presenting facts, acknowledging the other side, and using persuasive language, Goodman convinces the reader of his claim. Here are our notes on what stands out in this essay (general comments are in purple, spelling/grammar errors are highlighted in yellow): Note that not every 8/8/8 essay needs to have exactly the same items in here, nor do you need to apa format for research paper, argue in exactly the essays same way. But the elements in this essay make it a standout and apa format references demonstrate clear mastery. And now for the million-dollar question: What Makes This SAT Essay an 8 Rather Than a 6? Maybe you get the theory behind what makes an essay an 8/8/8, but what about in practice? Read on to find out what distinguishes this particular SAT essay as a perfect 8 in Reading, Analysis, and Writing. SAT graders are big on database, clarity, and references clarity requires precise language and obvious, sound logic. In this essay, vivid language is used effectively and appropriately:

Goodman is described as bombarding the essay midsummer reader with facts and figures The writer describes Goodman as arguing his point using not just language but persuasive and compelling language : The effect of Goodman’s argument is not just that it convinces the reader, but that the reader…will find herself predisposed to agree with Goodman’s call for more professional foreign news reporting. All of apa format references, this clear and precise language helps support and explain the author's point (just as Goodman’s language supports his point in the text!) Effective Analysis and letter Organization. The writer's clarity extends to her logic as well. Sufficient background is given to make it clear the writer read and understood the text. The examples used are clear and logically connected within paragraphs. The writer also makes sure to identify the what/why/what of the author's argumentative devices:

What are the techniques the author used to persuade the reader of his claim? Why did the author use them? What effect does their use have on the reader? The organization of the essay follows the organization set out in the introduction: the writer first discusses facts and evidence, then the presentation and refutation of a counterargument, then compelling language. Apa Format For Research! Organization in the essay is resume database aided by paper references transitions between all paragraphs, which create a smooth, consistent argument that is easy to follow. The clarity of the argument and the lack of errors remain consistent from start to ct tech, finish.

The highlighted errors are few and do not detract or distract from the meaning of the paper essay. The wording of the thesis statement in the introduction and the conclusion is similar but not identical, and the description of how Goodman builds his argument is the same. Dos piezas by Raul Hernandez Gonzalez, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped from original. The author uses a variety of words (marked in blue) and sentence structures to convey similar ideas in different ways throughout the essay. Essay Midsummer! For instance, social media , man-on-the-ground (or man-on-the-spot ) reporting , citizen journalism , and amateur reporting are all different words and phrases used to describe the same phenomenon of paper references, non-professional foreign news correspondents.

Another example of this can be found in david foster, Paragraph 4. “Knowing that Goodman takes the power of social media seriously will make the reader more inclined…” could easily be the simpler “Goodman takes the power of apa format for research, social media seriously, which makes the reader more likely to agree…” This kind of essay midsummer, linguistic flourish can be found in apa format for research paper, most top-scoring SAT Essays. Note that this usage is effective, and SAT vocab words aren't thrown into the essay haphazardly - it's clear, effective writing like what you might read in the New York Times. The essay is long enough to detail 3 complex examples (discussing Goodman’s use of facts and evidence, a counterargument, and what of an essay vivid language) and include introductory and concluding paragraphs. With the updates to the essay rubric, College Board made it explicit that your essay should have an introduction and conclusion. In The Official SAT Study Guide (March 2016 Beyond) , they also make it clear that shorter essays will receive lower Writing scores (because if you don't write more than a couple of for research, paragraphs, there's not enough writing by which essay graders can accurately judge your writing abilities). But length means nothing if there isn't valuable information filling the space, so long SAT essays also need to be detailed—this author uses the space to give lots of letter, context for for research her examples. Dos and Don’ts for ever an 8/8/8 SAT Essay. The key for a perfect score on the SAT essay is to use your time wisely and stay focused on the task.

To help you do this, we've compiled tips for things to do (and things to avoid). Writing as much as you can without including repetitive or irrelevant information. Revising the first and last paragraphs (they stand out in readers’ minds). Apa Format! Making sure you have effective transitions for david a seamless essay. Explaining the persuasive effect the author’s argumentative techniques have on the reader. Thinking of “smart-sounding evidence – analysis of how the author used a personal anecdote is just as viable as a discussion of the author’s use of logos and other rhetorical strategies. Trying to correct every single error – the grammar and the spelling do not have to be perfect to score an apa format, 8 in Writing. Essay Midsummer! This doesn't mean that you should just leave sentence fragments all over the place, but it does mean that accidentally leaving off the for research paper last letter of a word or making a small subject/verb agreement error won't be the end of the world (or of your perfect SAT essay score). Spend the list essays extra time trying to write more and develop your points. Adding as many vocabulary words as you can – you do need some stylistic flourishes, as noted above, but you shouldn’t overdo it, or your writing will sound clunky.

How to Train to for research, Improve Your SAT Essay Score. As I mentioned above, most anyone can train to reliably get a 6 on all sections of the foster wallace essays essay, and many can move beyond that to consistently get 8/6/6, 6/6/8, or 8/8/8. Here’s a framework for how to do this: Read through our complete list of SAT essay prompts Memorize a list of persuasive techniques that you can find in most essay prompt articles Start by practicing with extended length time (80 minutes) so you can feel what it takes to get a top-scoring essay. If you’re struggling, you can also split up the different parts of the essay task for practice. For instance, you can practice reading and analyzing articles separately from apa format paper writing the essay. Find a way to grade your essay.

If you can be objective about your writing , you can notice weak spots, especially if you ran out of time but know what to do (and it'll be good practice for analyzing the passage on the essay!). Resume Database! Otherwise, try to paper, get help from an English teacher or a friend who’s a better writer. Start narrowing the time down to 50 minutes to letter, mirror the actual test. Looking for a great way to for research, prep? Check out resume PrepScholar's online prep program. It customizes your prep program to your strengths and for research paper references weaknesses so you get the most effective prep possible. Even better, we give detailed essay feedback from a leading SAT instructor. You'll get point-by-point comments on where you're falling short, and how to improve your weak spots to jump up in cover ct tech, SAT essay score. Click below to sign up for our 5-day free trial. Have friends who also need help with test prep?

Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and for research GRE and loves advising students on how to excel in high school. You should definitely follow us on social media. Essay Midsummer! You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. For Research Paper! Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section:

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college art essay Nicholas Handler, is a junior at Yale University majoring in history. Handler is active in social justice organizations and for research paper, hopes to become a human rights lawyer. I never expected to villain, gain any new insight into the nature of paper references my generation, or the essay midsummer changing landscape of American colleges, in Lit Theory. Lit Theory is supposed to be the apa format paper class where you sit at resume, the back of the room with every other jaded sophomore wearing skinny jeans, thick-framed glasses, an ironic tee-shirt and over-sized retro headphones, just waiting for lecture to be over so you can light up a Turkish Gold and walk to lunch while listening to paper, Wilco. That’s pretty much the essay way I spent the apa format paper course, too: through structuralism, formalism, gender theory, and database, post-colonialism, I was far too busy shuffling through my iPod to see what the patriarchal world order of capitalist oppression had to do with Ethan Frome. But when we began to study postmodernism, something struck a chord with me and made me sit up and look anew at the seemingly blase college-aged literati of which I was so self-consciously one. Letter: Fortunately, College Has Changed. This is in regard to your college essay contest that took place last year. The essay entitled Fortunately, College Has Changed by Matthew Bender from the University of Arkansas has several factual errors and insinuations.

Then entire first and second paragraphs are neither chronologically or factually correct. How do I know that there are errors? Because I am Mervin Jebaraj, the person referred to in the opening paragraph. 1. A committee of students wrote the actual text of apa format for research paper a proposed bill not a note. The idea began in david wallace list essays November of 2007 and not in the spring. 2. There was no staying up all night, and for research, there was no on campus bbq. Shylock Villain Essay? The committee obtained a meeting with Sen. Madison after a lot of work and didn’t just pass a note to her. The committee also spent months working with her and other legislators.

to see the resolution passed. We don’t appreciate the trivialising narrative of our work. 3. The resolution never asked for paper references the creation of socially aware investments, the options already existed. 4. The conference I went to essay, was well after the divestment process and was to share ideas about divestment with others as opposed to apa format paper, receiving inspiration for david list essays divestment. 5. There is an implication that I was skinny dipping and smoking marijuana in Belize. Neither is true. I hold the New York times in for research paper references the highest regard and essay midsummer, hope that you will take this seriously. In the future, I hope you check the. veracity of statements made before you publish them.

Mervin Jebaraj, Research Assistant, Center for Business and apa format, Economic Research. Liz Addison , 38, is a biology major whose goal is to become a large animal veterinarian. She has trained a winning racehorse and is interested in American presidential history. Oh, the resume hand wringing. “College as America used to understand it is coming to an end,” bemoans Rick Perlstein and his beatnik friend of fallen face. Those days, man, when a pretentious reading list was all it took to lift a child from suburbia. When jazz riffs hung in the dorm lounge air with the smoke of a thousand bongs, and college really mattered. Really mattered? Rick Perlstein thinks so. It mattered so much to him that he never got over his four years at the University of apa format for research Privilege.

So he moved back to live in its shadow, like a retired ballerina taking a seat in the stalls. But when the curtain went up he saw students working and studying and working some more. Adults before their time. Today, at the University of Privilege, the student applies with a Curriculum Vitae not a book list. Shudder. Frankie Thomas , is a junior majoring in cinema-television critical studies, with a minor in gender studies. Her immediate plans include dropping out at the end of the year to write and/or travel. She is letter a film maker and a blogger, with interests ranging from the social history of the Victorian era to birdwatching to the novels of apa format for research references Dawn Powell. I had the kind of college experience most people only dream about.

Charged by the atmosphere of intellectual exploration, inspired by what are the essential argumentative, professors who pushed me farther than I’d ever imagined I could go, I made fascinating new friends at Skidmore; together we discovered Nabokov and Kafka, Citizen Kane and Dr. Strangelove, and our own literary voices. It was a three-week summer program. I was fifteen. Now I’m twenty, halfway toward graduating from University of Southern California, and if I had a thousand dollars for every college student I know who Struggles With Depression…well, I still wouldn’t have enough money to pay my full tuition. But it would keep me going for a semester or two, assuming I didn’t lose my own struggle and drop listlessly out. Paper? As our SATs would have put it, “depression” is to “college campus” as “consumption” is to “Victorian orphanage,” and ours is a generation of wheezing waifs. Max Lance , 23, is a freshman at USC’s School of Cinematic Arts, majoring in writing for film and television.

He hopes to make his mark either with a “life-changing TV show” or by “marrying someone rich.” When I dropped out of college three years ago I would have completely agreed that college isn’t the cultural experience that it was hyped up to be. As I return this September, I’ve realized that it’s a good thing it isn’t. I completely agree that college as America used to know it has come to an end, but I believe that schools have changed for the better. The problem I had when I quit school the first time around was that I never adjusted to how schools have changed. Shylock Villain Essay? I dropped out because of my mislaid expectations; the same ones that Rick Perlstein is nostalgic for. I’m going back to school because I’ve realized what the college experience is like today and I’m now more than prepared to abuse it. Like nearly everyone in apa format paper my graduating class, I attended higher education because that’s what we did next. College seemed more like 13th grade rather than a place where I would be opened up to radical people and essay, ways of thinking. I spent my freshman and paper, sophomore years doing what I needed to do to get good grades because that’s all I had done since kindergarten.

And even though I worked hard to earn a 3.7 GPA, I dropped out of New York University because of a complete lack of passion for what I was studying (journalism, via process of elimination). Travis Weinger , 21, is a senior majoring in history, with a concentration in war, revolution and social change. His minor is political science. He is a founder of the david wallace list essays Triton, a newspaper at UCSD, and of the Symposium, an on-campus discussion group. Rick Perlstein’s article, boiled down, is simply an apa format paper references, extended version of the bitching that every generation hears from the one that preceded it: “Back when I went to school, we walked uphill in the snow both ways…” In sum, college mattered back when Mr.

Perlstein went to it because that was when he went to it. Since college has changed from greatest essay when he remembered it, he wants us to believe that it has somehow degenerated into irrelevance. The vast majority of Perlstein’s complaints fit under the above rubric. Our college experience is not as liberating as his was (no longer can we simply phone public intellectuals and bully them into visiting our dorms). Our activists are not as radical as his were (we don’t take over enough buildings). Our connection to for research paper references, the Sixties isn’t as strong as his was (our band members aren’t former revolutionaries). Essay Midsummer? We are not as alienated from references society as he was (we engage our world, not whine about essential it).

Perlstein’s claim that his experience was in some way both richer and apa format for research references, harder than the next generation’s is an david wallace list essays, old one, and is continuously echoed by every generation. Like most complaints of apa format this type, it is largely groundless and mildly insulting. To respond to it bit by bit would validate his nostalgic whining to a degree it does not deserve. The Cultural Contradictions of essay ever American Universities. For the past twenty to thirty years, we have seen the great degradation of post-secondary education. Conventional wisdom suggests that the problem lies simultaneously within the hands of the apa format paper references politicians and the students. This narrative does not account for the history of college. Throughout the modern age, the role college played in the national debate was minimal.

To this date, there has only been one president with a Ph.D., and both The New Deal and Truman’s Fair Deal did relatively little for letter ct tech college and education in general (with the exception of the G.I. Apa Format? Bill). And even today, most candidates on both sides of the isle have the same prescription for college: the cover letter problem is lack of funding, therefore, the apa format solution is to essay midsummer, increase funding. Apa Format References? It usually ends at that. In order to find the true crisis of college, we must first look at its true purpose. A few months ago, Charles Murray wrote a controversial series of columns in cover letter the Wall Street Journal arguing, not that college had been written out of the national debate, but that its role is too great. Essentially, too many people are going to for research paper references, college who did not need college, but instead needed vocational training. There are serious problems with his logic to be sure, not the least of which is his obvious IQ-ism. While it is resume database true that college is in need of some serious reforming, focusing solely on for research paper, IQ will not solve them, for IQ is not the only purpose of college. For example, there are, what a professor of mine called, “latent overtones.” That is, those unexpected, and of an argumentative essay, unintended consequences of college learning.

For example, one might discover a great philosopher that he’s never heard of, or another collegiate finds that they enjoy a field of study which they did not expect. But this is, of course, part of the intellectual journey of students. College exists not, as conventional wisdom suggests, to change the culture. It exists to for research paper references, create a new breed of intellectuals. All politics aside, students should exit college not knowing simply what to think, but how to shylock villain essay, think. This is where Mr.

Murray and I agree. He hits the nail on paper references, the head when he describes the purpose of greatest essay college, that college is created to train the elites to do their jobs. However, this purpose has been lost in a quagmire of watered-down curricula and fluff courses. And this brings us to the real problem of college: the references searing anti-intellectualism of the youth. Education is the single most important factor in foster list essays the growth of our country. Specifically, higher education paves a future and provides opportunity for apa format paper references students that attend college and gives them a shot at resume, a career. 50 years ago, college was strictly for apa format for research references the elite, high class Americans.

Now, it seems that every common household has at least one family member attend college. But with the increasing drop out rate today, students seem less interested in letter ct tech learning at college and their priorities change from their original goal of graduating. For Research? The importance of essay midsummer education today is a growing factor because the future of this country depends on paper, the students in college today. College is misunderstood by many incoming freshman. All of the television advertisements and billboards encouraging students to attend college are used as bait to reel in student’s tuition. Parents encourage their kids to attend college after graduating high school because they want to see their kids have a shot at essay, success. Apa Format For Research Paper References? However, college is of an argumentative essay not cut out for apa format everyone. David Foster List? More freshman than ever are dropping out after their first year because college can be overwhelming through everything that takes place within campus boundaries. For Research References? The pressures of college whether it’s to impress parents or maintain a high GPA grasps hold of essay midsummer many students while they are in college, freezing them from work and attending class regularly. For Research References? Back in the 50’s and 60’s when college was becoming so popular, people attended college solely to ct tech, improve their education and learn through the college experience, in hopes of obtaining a career after graduation.

Now, people attend college because their friends or girlfriend go there. Many people attend college just to party as much as possible. Apa Format For Research? College can be misleading for teenagers fresh out of high school, and people who feel that continuing their education isn’t the most important factor in what are the essential of an argumentative attending college should not apply. College matters because without a thoroughly educated society, America would fall to references, its knees and regress into deep depression. Jobs would flounder because the people applying for essay midsummer them wouldn’t get accepted without college degrees. Pat Brown expanded university development in California in apa format paper 1966 to encourage people of villain every social class to attend college and gain a higher education. The reason for his rapid expansion was because the number of college students doubled from 1957 to 1967, and Brown decided in order to improve society and keep America running, more universities should be built to attract new students. Apa Format? However, in essay midsummer 1997, only apa format paper, 54 percent of students that attended college as freshmen graduated with a degree six years later, 30 percent not even finishing their freshman year. Once students enroll in villain college, dropping out is the worst decision they can make. The opportunity cost of dropping can be detrimental to a student’s financial standing. Dropping out apa format for research also means dropping tuition, and students are often left with debt to are the essential, pay off depending on for research references, which year they dropped out.

Entering in a low paying job, drop outs must slowly pay back student loans, which is why college is so important to stick to and graduate once enrolled. The likelihood of students being able to pay off student loans quickly after graduating is shylock villain essay much greater than the likelihood of a drop out paying off loans. Drop outs sometimes will only make enough money per apa format paper references, paycheck to pay off previous college debts, not leaving any left over cash for leisure activities. Once choosing the decision to attend college, remaining in college is the resume database most important decision a student can make, in order to avoid living a below average lifestyle. Young adults are fed by change. No matter how resistant or welcoming I am to change, when all is said and done change sustains me. Two years as an undergraduate student at Fordham University have been made slightly easier by knowing this about myself, because college means change. Even with the apa format for research paper references still shrinking cyber community and the ‘real world’ opportunities offered to many young people today, nothing can replace the rush of change attached to the college experience. College students are encouraged to make noise. When interviewed by Rick Perlstein for an article entitled ‘What’s the Matter With College” students were very vocal. David List? Hamilton Morris, a New York bred college student, described a college experience where many students hate school “with a passion” and “don’t leave”.

Perlstein writes that Morris’s feelings are proof of a “culture of enervation” which overwhelms many campuses today. Paper? Instead of seeing what Perlstein describes, students without hope or the will to pursue their studies, I see Morris as describing a culture of restlessness. Students who claim to hate college but still do not leave are experiencing a kind of restlessness which comes with the package. Students experience change so quickly–changes of passions, opinions and interests. They are bound to become restless, especially when the off-campus world is within arm’s length.

I often smile to think the world is at my fingertips when I am surfing the internet, but the what essential elements of an argumentative truth is apa format for research paper references my fingers are touching my keyboard, and I am planted in my kitchen chair drinking Diet Coke. College offers me the opportunity to resume database, shake hands with the leaders of business, art, science and medicine–something the internet can not give me. College professors do not want students to be excited about school and theory alone–they want them to apa format, take their passion into the world beyond the campus. I am not writing this commentary for essay midsummer my school newspaper. Paper? I am writing it for New York Times Magazine, a publication Journalism majors like me aspire to what elements of an, work for. College urges me to aspire, to voice my opinions, and yes, to change. The problem with colleges in the 21st century is convoluted with many deciding factors, resulting in a more complex position for current college students to experience, unlike any previous generation of college students. In my opinion, being a college graduate student and one who has been involved in for research references my school, I can honestly say that the biggest problem with our generation is the sense of nihilism, which is plaguing the our very core of our being. It is letter important to realize that this comes not only from college campuses, but the society in general; people just don’t care.

If they do care and want to be involved, societal pressures, mostly economic, is what keeps them from being invoked with the spirit of the previous generations. There seems to be no sense of urgency when it comes to our generation. Nihilism will do that to apa format, everyone. I also find it interesting that the people who do want to be involved do not necessarily know what to get involved with. In the essay midsummer 60s, it seemed to be clear cut what the problem was; racism, sexism, or the war in Vietnam. A contrast between the 60s generation and apa format for research paper, us now is that people do not what the problems really are. Shylock? The mentality when speaking to college students; they seem to focus more on trying to get that 80K a year job then the socio-political issues affecting us. It is evident that we value the for research references dollar more so than we value the human struggle. So apathy also plays a role. David Foster Wallace List? It is important to realize that we must do something, otherwise everyone suffers. Sending your child to college is not an option in American society, and apa format for research paper, it’s hardly a privilege at essay midsummer, that.

In today’s fierce and fast paced world it is a necessity For most parents, thought goes into how they will even fund such a venture within the first few months of the child’s conception. College funds and apa format paper, savings bonds, money from database relatives and graduation parties, this all gets stored until an paper references, entire portion of that funding goes towards expensive college visits. Not only does the child want to essay ever, go to college, that child has picked out 10 in which there is an orientation at each for prospective parents. They want to see where their money is going, as well as where their child will sleep, learn, and become the successful adult they were meant to be. What is wrong with college? As a successful student at a prominent Chicago school, I, for one, have plenty of opinions on apa format references, the matter. Let’s look at “our war” by first taking a retrospective glance at Vietnam. Essay Midsummer? My father, a student at the time of Vietnam, was a conservative at a very conservative Indiana school. He still wore his GDI shirt most days of the week and apa format for research, talked highly of the camaraderie between fellow students.

There were protests that were actually allowed on his campus. Shylock Essay? When the students died in the Kent incident he remembers rallies against the war in apa format for research paper references their honor. He also remembers reading the cover names of the dead soldiers with the rest of his class, keeping in somber memory the fight his country was in. References? Bands of essay students were scared, there was a draft in effect. Everyone had war on references, the mind and as those 18 year olds took on their first years of college, they had a lot more to ever, worry about than where the weekend’s keg party was taking place. They were learning, growing, and forming opinions on the world they were entering by knowing their current events and being passionate about them. Of course, without the internet, their local papers brought them more world events and less Lindsay Lohan. Being passionate about the for research paper references world takes a certain naivety that forms when someone does not already have the opinions of what of an argumentative essay others so easily accessible.

The internet has taken so much of this away from current students. In my experience, you only have to make a choice on which websites to read. Looking at our war today, many students walk away from it, choosing not even to recognize that it affects their daily world. There are many more cliques, many more places to apa format for research references, falter, and david foster wallace list essays, many more reasons not to care. Hold a pen in front of you and look at it; notice its size and apa format references, color in particular.

Now, slowly move it away until you have your arm fully extended. Notice anything different? Probably not, and that is greatest essay how it should be. If we remember back to middle school science class, color is partially dependent upon the angle that light hits an apa format for research paper references, object. But we just moved an object, causing the angle to change from our perspective, and did not notice any change in color. The pen also moved further away without any apparent change in size. David List? I forgot the intricate details that explain why this happens, something to do with a portion of the brain that keeps our perceptions fluid . What I do remember, and will never forget, is how cool this all seemed and paper references, how much more there is to the world when you get past the surface. College is a pretty different place today than it was for my parents thirty years ago. Then again, so were the two worlds in which we were raised.

Most kids in my generation were not raised in the Sandlot. We did not hang out at the malt shop after school. And we definitely did not attend any sock hops (or if we did, best believe we did not call them that). Instead, we started out playing on jungle gyms with woodchips and protective rubber flooring underneath. Eventually, we found ourselves being chauffeured to organized baseball practice, in a minivan. By high school, the david importance of getting into a good college had been seared into us and apa format for research, serious attention had to essay midsummer, be allocated toward after-school activities and other kinds of enriching events to apa format for research paper, make sure that we were “well- rounded”. Here’s a fun game that anyone my age can play: ask your parents what they got on their SATs. If they can, you win! Basically, it is like hitting the lottery, since your parents have to be like one out of a million. High school students in the 60’s did not pay $1,000 for an SAT class and letter, definitely did not go to any Independent College Consultants.

As Mr. Perlstein stated, college was seen as a place sort of apart from the rest of the apa format world. Kids went there and were met with new people, ideas, and situations. Back then, as I understand it, college was not seen as a stepping stone or a rung on the ladder. Shylock Villain Essay? You did not go with the mindset that it was simply a means to end, a place to simply collect good grades and then experience the for research paper ‘director’s cut redux edition’ of college admissions in the form of graduate school, an internship or a job. Why College Matters: A Response to “What’s the Matter With College” I suppose I should begin by saying that I don’t go to a real college. I mean, I don’t feel like I go to a real college.

I don’t take real classes. I don’t live on what are the elements argumentative, a real campus. I’m a music major and attend the Peabody Institute in for research Baltimore, Maryland. Peabody is an foster, established music conservatory, one of the schools of Johns Hopkins University (despite what I say about it not being a “real” school). In his essay, Perlstein is making it seem that today’s college undergraduates and the ideals we pursue are somehow deficient. That we’re missing out. He’s especially concerned that we’re nothing like the students of the 60s and 70s. Apa Format For Research Paper References? He’s right about that, but that is nothing to villain essay, be ashamed of. We’re students who want (or carry) the iPhone.

We are environmental activists. We’re more technologically savvy than Perlstein’s generation. We get our information and communicate in a totally different way. We’re amazing jugglers. We’re a new breed. It is interesting to for research, read that the defining issue for the 1966 California gubernatorial race was college. For my sake, and I’m sure for the sake of a lot of ct tech my peers, I wish it were still that way.

College sounded romantic and fun. My friends argue that things have changed in the past 40 years, and paper, that there are bigger fish to fry. The war, for example. Making a living once college ends. When they start complaining, however, about are the essential of an essay classes and stress, I ask them, “aren’t there bigger fish to fry?” at which they sigh outwardly, roll their eyes, and throw their hands up in the air. I understand where their frustration lies. We still feel young in the scheme of things, and not ready to plan out apa format for research references our lives after college. It feels like we’ve been doing nothing but planning since freshman year of high school. Who has time to greatest essay, worry anyway?

Right now, I am worrying if I have enough money to apa format for research paper, pay the rent this month. Many of my classmates worry how to pay for the next semester. To be honest, when it came to college, most of us never really had a choice. Where I grew up, in Greenwich, Connecticut, there was never the option of “college vs. no college.” The choice was “Ivy League vs. state school,” or something along those lines. The whole getting-ready-for-college experience was important.

As you thumb these pages, reader, loyal subscriber, conscious citizen with an david wallace list essays, appetite for inquiry and apa format references, thoughtfulness, or may I say fellow American, you tell yourself that you want to sample a young student’s intellect. Certainly I do believe that my own college experience has been important, even critical, to my life and to my thoughts here and now, but young and impressionable does not necessarily partner with a tame, meaningful sense of hindsight… My college experience has fostered some growth. But for the nation? Lend me some relevance. Am I to accurately describe my confusion with you over essay ever coffee to tell you how this all breaks down–I fit in the puzzle and I’m one of the corners, right? Politics. We don’t have movements, and we don’t have causes. A choice between higher education and higher purpose has been made; show me one text message, fellow student, that you have wanted the whole country to paper, read. Children live at school. Especially if they don’t have much of a home life to live in the afternoon or evening, kids live and learn at school.

College isn’t so different, only are the elements of an argumentative, first graders aren’t expected to for research paper references, shape up all by themselves when they appear to be wasting time. Wallace List? Oh, college students aren’t either? Pity. I guess higher education isn’t all that important. Maybe the problems of higher education are just fronds atop a mirage of public schooling. Talk to Herbert Kohl, Jonathan Kozol, John Taylor Gatto, men who are trying to wake this country up, and they’ll show you what’s happening to my younger brothers and for research paper references, sisters.

Content in the shade, college students loaf, while in more dangerous environs, under the pretext that they are to learn, children sit down in their desks each morning in the arms of a crumbling system. In college, we choose to essay midsummer, sleep in, not to participate, excel, regress, etc. If higher education is important to the nation, why don’t more people act like it? Better yet, if education is so important to the nation’s future, why is it neglected? Important as it is, I feel proud to remember the words of Thomas Jefferson, who often can remind us of politicians’ and for research paper references, citizens’ true responsibilities: “It is greatest ever highly interesting to our country, and it is the duty of apa format for research its functionaries, to provide that every citizen in it should receive an database, education proportioned to the condition and pursuits of for research paper references his life.” He speaks to the politician, tells him to greatest ever, take a good look at apa format references, his fellow Americans.

What sort of education will he provide to match the resume condition, the quality of life? If the quality be poor, will he stick to for research paper references, poor schooling until lifestyles rise to letter ct tech, the occasion? Try downtown Anywhere, where elementary schools have been forced to remove social studies and arts in favor of apparently year-round test preparation, for standards in English and mathematics. The “need to know” world and apa format for research paper, the world of standardization are one in the same, and greatest ever, columns of darkened bubbles are in no short supply, though there’s still a need to live. The Problem with College: Why We No Longer See Ourselves As “Part of” a Community.

One anomaly of American society is that our universities play only apa format for research paper references, a marginal role in our culture. In other nations, like France where intellectual life is not centered on foster, their institutions of education, this may come as no surprise, but the virtues of references American universities are indisputable. Academics wonder why they are allowed to be the nation’s intellectual leaders, but not its leaders, or even advisors, in the political or ethical arenas. Some are resentful of the mainstream society, thinking it apostate, as though they were priests of some outworn creed, but this alienation, which has developed in tandem with the evolution of villain academia, did not come because the society rejected the university as a social or moral authority, but rather because the university ran out of the energy it took to function in this role. This occurred, at least partially, because those of us in college found that the values we shared were not strong enough to unite us.

From the time of apa format for research Plato, the purpose of the university has not been to represent the foster wallace society or culture in which it exists but to pursue truth. Most academics, who may disagree on what truth is in essence, would agree that it is a noble and worthy objective. And, since truth is apa format for research paper their goal, many of them think themselves justified in being alienated from mainstream society. This does not mean their views are homogenous; I can testify that, at the University of Idaho (to name one example), the politics of essay midsummer professors in the College of Business are not shared by the English instructors; but what the two departments have in common is their distance from America’s political center. For Research Paper References? This is largely because specialists in any field, whether that field is philosophy or political science, tend to feel invalidated if anyone could reach the same conclusions that they do. It is a telling fact that, at least until recent years, there was a higher percentage of self-described Marxist literary critics than blue-color workers. Nonetheless, this desire for academic innovation benefits the university in that it makes professors’ research original; it is for this reason that, whenever universities are rated according to essay, prestige, the apa format paper United States constantly is essay found to have the apa format for research paper references greatest number of prestigious institutions. Even so, there is another facet to a professor’s job, teaching. This requirement creates a dilemma for many professors: their strenuous educations and meticulous research has caused many of them to become opinionated, but, at what are the essential of an argumentative, the same time, they need to keep their students pacified while educating them in accordance with principles which the students may not share. Thus, they (and the students) learn that it is easier to ignore worldview-related issues.

In searching for the least common ethical denominator among the group, the instructors and the instructed clandestinely agree that the values which they hold as specific to their Weltanschauungs do not apply to everyone, and, if they do, the value of placidity applies even more. As Allan Bloom wrote in 1987, “[A]lmost every student entering the university . . . says he believes . . . that truth is relative” (1). While this outlook may work in as far as it prevents conflicts, it is an ineffective communal bond. This is because the values of the paper classroom are provisional and–most students cannot help but feel–artificial. They haven’t the power to david wallace, unite the students and apa format for research, faculty in a community, which requires common interests and mores. In July, The Magazine published What's the Matter With College, an what are the essential elements argumentative essay, essay by for research, the historian Rick Perlstein, online and invited college students across the United States to respond.

Some 600 undergraduates did -- many agreeing with Perlstein's assertion that college as America used to understand it is david wallace coming to an end, many dismissing his argument as so much nostalgic pap, still others taking the occasion to critique higher education from an insider's perch. To continue the conversation, we're featuring the winning student essay and four runners-up, and posting another 450 of the apa format for research paper references entries in a searchable format. (The other entries were withdrawn by their authors or did not follow the contest's rules.)