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How long should a college application essay be
BizTalk Server and WCF Integration. Atul Gupta (Infosys Technologies Ltd) Amit Praful Shah (Infosys Technologies Ltd) Jitendra Pal Thethi (Infosys Technologies Limited) September 17, 2007. Should For A Essay? This article describes the thesis statement, different approaches available to should a heading college expose and for writing consume Windows Communication Framework (WCF) services from BizTalk Server 2004 (BTS04) and BizTalk Server 2006 (BTS06). Code samples for what should for a essay, integration of a WCF service with BizTalk Server 2004 are available here and for integration with BizTalk Server 2006 here. With the November 2006 release of .NET Framework 3.0, the wait is resume psoting, finally over for software professionals.
The core components of what essay this managed code programming model – Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF), Windows Communication Foundation (WCF) and Windows Workflow Foundation (WF) – has revolutionized the bibliography, way software is programmed. This article focuses on the different options available for communication between WCF and BTS06. While much of the discussion will also be applicable to BTS04, any discrepancies in implementation for BTS04 will be highlighted. There is a WCF Adapter for BTS06 is available on the CodePlex Web site. An out-of-the-box adapter will be shipped with BizTalk Server 2006 R2 which may be released by the end of September 2007. An overview of the R2 WCF Adapter's capabilities is available at the following blog post. What? To try out the R2 WCF Adapter, download the BizTalk Server 2006 R2 Beta from the Microsoft Connect site. However, you may need to integrate existing BizTalk-based applications with WCF to do the thesis on microstrip metamaterial, same. In this article we present various options to achieve interoperability in what should cases where upgrading to BizTalk Server 2006 R2 is not possible.
The article merely outlines the approaches and resume psoting does not deal with them in what should a heading for a college an exhaustive manner. Nor does it provide a benchmark to compare the approaches. Ever? You need to evaluate and choose one among the suggested techniques after taking into should a heading for a college essay, account the needs of resume psoting your application. Note: If you are upgrading to BizTalk 2006 R2, then working with WCF Adapter will be ideal due to the ease of use, deployment and management it offers. Should A Heading For A College Essay? Overview of WCF and BTS06 Technologies.
Before getting into the specifics, it may be useful to get an overview of WCF and BTS06. If you are already familiar with these technologies, you may skip the introductions and proceed to the section on 'WCF Service Used as Reference'. WCF is Microsoft's unified platform used for rapidly building secure, reliable and interoperable distributed applications. WCF combines the earlier disparate programming models into a single service-oriented programming model. In the tips for writing annotated bibliography, world before WCF, software developers had to pick from what a heading college essay, numerous technology choices in order to create and expose services that could be consumed in a distributed environment. While developers chose web services for interoperability and Microsoft Message Queuing (MSMQ) for reliable messaging, they used Enterprise Services for transaction management, .NET Remoting for high performance systems and greatest Web Service Enhancements (WSE) for secure messaging, resulting in the same logic being duplicated when the component had to be exposed over should a heading for a essay, multiple channels. At a high level, every WCF service consists of the following three parts: The Service Contract that defines 'what' the service does and research a service class that contains the implementation for the service. Configuration files consisting of bindings (the 'how' part) and endpoints (the 'where' part) that define the way clients access the a heading college, WCF service. These configuration files are independent of implementation. The binding specifies how a client communicates with the evolution, service in terms of transport and other attributes. The endpoint specifies the address at what a heading for a which this service is exposed to clients.
A process that hosts the writing, service implementation so that it can be invoked from client applications. The following diagram depicts a WCF service being invoked by a client: Figure 1: WCF Communication. Given below, are a sequence of what steps that need to be followed for implementing and annotated making a WCF service available for consumption. What A Heading Essay? As with all service-oriented development, we follow a contract-first development model for WCF services. Two types of research papers evolution vs creation contracts need to be specified: Service contract: This contract defines the interface of the service, which is the set of operations that are implemented and exposed by the service. The service contract uses a specific attribute viz [OperationContract] to what a heading essay define the operations. The code snippet given below shows how the class and papers vs creation method definitions are decorated with attributes to indicate the service contract. What A Heading College Essay? In the following example, the service contract (interface ICalculator) exposes two operations Add and Subtract, each of which expects 2 ComplexNumber input parameters and return a ComplexNumber as response. Data contract: Every service call will typically have a set of data elements that will be passed as input parameters and a output that is returned from the call.
The data contract helps in formalizing this data exchange. The data is typically modeled as a class or struct and is given attributes that define the contract. Resume Psoting? The data contract controls the a heading, way the request object, which is passed as a parameter to the service call, is serialized and hence controls the SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) message format that flows on the wire. An example of a data contract is research, given below. Note that the DataContract and DataMember attributes are used to decorate the class ComplexNumber, which is the data entity passed as input and output to the Add and Subtract operations in the service contract defined above. What Should For A Essay? Once the service and data contracts are defined, you need to create an improve essay, implementation for the service. This is done by for a essay, first defining the class that will implement the interface in thesis on microstrip patch the service contract. The actual business logic for what should for a college essay, the operations is then included in the method implementations. Antenna? As mentioned earlier, the service is implemented independent of the transport or address over which the service is eventually exposed. This is possible because in WCF, the transport and address details are specified as attributes in what should a heading external configuration files.
To configure end points exposed by WCF services, it is mandatory to define the following details for papers vs creation, each endpoint: Contract: The contract is the should for a college, interface or the service contract that the service implements. In the sample shown below, the papers vs creation, endpoint is configured to expose the ICalculator service contract. Binding: The binding specifies the protocol over which the service can be accessed along with attributes that define security, reliability and other requirements. Address: The address is the physical URL where the service can be located. The key advantage of this configurability is that though the service is implemented just once, it can be accessed over should a heading for a college, multiple endpoints, each defining a unique combination of resume psoting address and what for a binding. A sample configuration for essay, end points is as follows: The final step is to host the service in a process. For this, there are multiple options – Internet Information Services (IIS), Windows Activation Services (WAS) and managed Windows service. What A Heading College Essay? A service may also be hosted in a managed Windows application such as Windows Forms applications, console applications, etc.
The following links provide more details about.NET Framework 3.0 and WCF: BizTalk Server is an integration product from Microsoft that enables enterprises to automate, deploy and monitor business processes. It offers Enterprise Application Integration (EAI), Business Process Management (BPM) and B2B integration capabilities. The BizTalk Server features can be categorized into two main areas—messaging and orchestration, which are described below. The messaging engine deals with parsing, sending/receiving, translating, and routing of messages to and from applications. Tips? It enables users to receive messages and route them into a business process or send out a message from the process. The orchestration engine deals with modeling and executing processes, and provides a tool to what should a heading for a college design and implement business processes. BizTalk orchestration thus helps manage overall application business logic. Messaging and orchestration are used together; with messaging providing the receipt and delivery capabilities that orchestration rely on. The diagram below shows the important components of BizTalk server: Figure 2: BizTalk Server Architecture. Other important BizTalk server components include: Business Rules Engine (BRE): The BRE allows one to create a set of business rules as policies and ever evaluate data based on for a college these rules. With this, business rules are maintained outside of the business process, but can be invoked from within the process.
This makes the systems easier to configure and maintain. Business Activity Monitoring (BAM): The BAM component makes it possible for the extraction of statement relevant information from business processes as they are executing and hence to monitor the what should for a college essay, processes in real time. Business Activity Services (BAS): The BAS portal, along with some of the components in BizTalk, enables the management of interactions with trading partners. It also helps integrate an enterprise's business processes with those of the partners. BizTalk allows you to create 'send' and 'receive' port gateways through which external applications can exchange messages with BizTalk.
The ports can be configured to use a set of transport protocols and application adapters that are shipped with BizTalk Server. With these adapters, BizTalk can exchange messages over multiple channels such as files, MSMQ, HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol), SOAP, IBM MQ, etc. Application adapters, which can directly interact with packaged applications like PeopleSoft, SAP, Oracle Apps, etc, are also available. Additionally, BizTalk can understand both positional/delimited and XML message formats. It has a mapping engine that can help transform messages from one format to another. Paper? The flow of a message through BizTalk is shown in what should a heading for a college essay the diagram below: Figure 3: Message flow in essay BizTalk Server. What A Heading? Since BizTalk has HTTP and SOAP Adapters, it can interact with web-based applications, especially web services.
The BizTalk Server interacts with services in the following two ways: BizTalk process orchestrations can be exposed as Web services. For Writing Annotated? In such a case, external clients can invoke the orchestration by making SOAP/HTTP calls. BizTalk can consume Web services by using the SOAP Adapter. More information on college BizTalk Server 2006 is available at the following URLs: BizTalk Server 2006 Home. The WCF Service Used as Reference. This article uses the following WCF service to explain BizTalk-WCF integration options: In the above service, a Product ID is the input parameter expected by the GetStockInfo() method. The logic will query the thesis, Product Table to retrieve current stock details for the Product ID. The return value is an integer indicating the a heading for a college, current stock available.
Both BizTalk Server and WCF are technologies that provide significant value by themselves. Annotated Bibliography? However, a combination of the two provides the broadest possible spectrum of connected system scenarios – both brokered and un-brokered – using open standard protocols. BizTalk provides business process orchestration, message transformation and business activity monitoring through designers and visual tools. WCF provides a unified framework for building secure, reliable and what should a heading for a transacted web services. Essay? The following sections will describe options for integrating BizTalk with WCF services. Consuming a WCF Services from BizTalk: Use the what should college, WCF Adapter. Research Papers Evolution Vs Creation? Currently in CTP, it will be released with BizTalk 2006 R2. WCF service exposed over basicHttpBinding and consumed from orchestration. WCF service exposed on wsHttpBinding endpoint. BizTalk communicates with the service using a WSE Adapter in a secure and reliable mode.
WCF Service endpoint on what should a heading for a essay msmqIntegrationBinding. BizTalk consumes the service using an MSMQ Adapter. BizTalk consumes service using a wrapper around the WCF proxy and invokes through BizTalk orchestration. Tips Bibliography? This mechanism is used when a transport adapter corresponding to a particular type of WCF binding in BizTalk, e.g. netTCPBinding , is not available in BizTalk. Exposing BizTalk orchestration as a WCF service having a basicHttpBinding binding. The following table shows the options for communication between BizTalk Server and a WCF service for various system-provided WCF bindings. These options are mapped to the features of each binding and indicate whether they are retained or are no longer available on selecting a given option. Use the following table to select the option that satisfies all features required in your scenario: Options for what, Communication. Correlation and research vs creation Duplex Channel. Orchestration using Send shapes bound to endpoint on HTTP Adapter. Wrap WCF Proxy as a .NET assembly.
Orchestration using Send Shapes bound to endpoint on WSE Adapter. Wrap WCF Proxy as a .NET assembly. Orchestration using Send shapes bound to endpoint on WSE Adapter. Wrap WCF proxy as a .NET assembly. Wrap service in a .NET proxy assembly. Wrap Service in a .NET proxy assembly. As MSMQ endpoint. Requires additional transformation.
Wrap service in a heading for a a .NET proxy assembly. As MSMQ endpoint. Requires additional transformation. Wrap service in a .NET proxy assembly. Antenna Using Metamaterial? Wrap service in a .NET proxy assembly. Should College Essay? Table 1: Options for BizTalk – WCF integration.
The following business case sample may help you understand the working of BizTalk and WCF: A user receives an invoice from writing, a file receive location using the File Adapter. BizTalk forwards this invoice to the WCF service to enquire about the stock availability based on the Prod ID mentioned in the invoice. WCF returns the stock status to BizTalk and writes to an output file location using the File Adapter. Accessing WCF Services from BizTalk Server. WCF Service with BasicHttpBinding binding, consumed from BizTalk. In this technique, the SOAP adapter is used to facilitate the communication. BizTalk consumes the a heading for a, WCF service by making a web reference to the WCF service exposed over basicHttpBinding . The basicProfileBinding conforms to WS-I Basic Profile 1.0 standards. The SOAP Send Adapter can be used to interface with such an endpoint. In order to consume a service that uses BasicHttpBinding : Add a web reference to the WSDL at endpoint address. Research Evolution Vs Creation? This creates the necessary web port and the multipart messages that need to be exchanged between BizTalk and WCF. Transform source messages to request schema messages.
Such messages can be sent from orchestrations. The following is the detailed sequence of steps to be followed for consuming a WCF service exposed over the BasicHttpBinding : Create a new web site using the WCF service template as shown below: Figure 4: Creating a new WCF Service project. An important snippet of the web.config file for basicHttpBinding is should, as follows: It defines the service contract of the WCF service and the binding information for basicHttpBinding . Refer to vs creation the MSDN site for more information on basicHttpBinding . Figure 5: Adding a web reference to the WCF service. What Should For A College Essay? The web port type and multipart messages are automatically created after addition of the web reference as seen in the orchestration view. Logical ports can now be added to the orchestration design surface. The WCF service can be invoked from the how to improve, orchestration by passing the request message type to the port and subsequently receiving the what a heading for a, response. Note: The steps remain the resume psoting, same when consuming the WCF service from BizTalk Server 2004 or BizTalk Server 2006.
WCF Service Exposed on WsHttpBinding Endpoint. Essay? WCF services exposed using a wsHttpBinding are secure, reliable and interoperable. These services implement WS-Reliable messaging for reliability and WS-Security for message-level security. A WSE-enabled adapter is required to call services exposed using wsHttpBinding . Microsoft has released a BTS04-compatible WSE 2.0 Adapter which can be used for communication. Research Vs Creation? However, currently, there is what should for a college essay, no BTS06-compatible adapter for WSE 3.0 available from Microsoft.
One can either write a custom adapter or use a third-party adapter like the one provided by TwoConnect. The WSE 2.0 Adapter, available for thesis antenna metamaterial, BTS04, can be used for interfacing. The supported standards are WS-Security (user / password token, Kerberos and X509) and WS-Reliability. More details are available on the MSDN web site. The WSE 2.0 adapter can be downloaded from here and the SP1 is available here.
A detailed walk through on using the WSE 2.0 adapter is available in a heading for a essay this TechNet article. TwoConnect has published a WSE 3.0 Adapter to interface with WCF services exposed using wsHttpBinding endpoint. You can find more details on the adapter at greatest ever http://adapterworx.com/cs/products/wse3.0.aspx. For connecting to WCF using the WSE 3.0 Adapter from TwoConnect, follow the what a heading, steps given below: Create and publish a WCF service according to the steps listed in the basicHttpBinding section.
An important snippet from the web.config file is tips annotated bibliography, as follows: Figure 6: Referencing WSDL URL information in the Schema Generation Wizard. Figure 7: Specifying the web methods in the Schema Generation Wizard. WCF Service Endpoint on MsmqIntegrationBinding. MSMQ bindings cover asynchronous message-based, inter-process communications using the MSMQ infrastructure. MSMQ provides the infrastructure to send messages across machines in a secure and reliable environment and in a transactional scope. This messaging pattern helps build scalable applications as the number of blocked and wait threads is minimal. What Should A Heading For A? The sample described in greatest ever this section, works as follows: BizTalk receives an invoice. It submits the message using an MSMQ Adapter to the private MSMQ queue present on what college essay a remote system where the WCF service is hosted.
The WCF service picks up the message from the MSMQ queue, finds out the stock status, updates the message, and how to improve posts it back to should the same queue. BizTalk picks up the greatest essay ever, message from the queue and posts it to a send location using the File Adapter. The WCF service is hosted inside a console application. Define the service contract as shown below: Note the use of the ServiceKnownType attribute. This helps expose .NET Types to the service so that they can be serialized and de-serialized when required. What Should For A College Essay? InvoiceType is a class with fields having one-to-one mapping. Thesis For Obesity? The source schema elements are present in the BizTalk message. Also note that since the message is should essay, passed to the WCF service over MSMQ, the parameter type of SubmitInvoice OperationContract will be of type MsmqMessage. This class is marked with the Serializable attribute so that the objects of this type can be serialized and de-serialized when required. Biztalk has send and receive ports that send and receive a message from MSMQ using the MSMQ Adapter.
The port binding is set to the specify later option. After deployment, set the properties of the greatest essay ever, send and receive ports for MSMQ bindings from the BizTalk Explorer as follows: Figure 8: Configuring the MSMQ Send Adapter. The above figure shows the property window for what should, the send port using MSMQ Adapter. Note that we have specified the name of the destination queue and set the transactional property of the queue to true . Figure 9: Configuring the MSMQ Receive Adapter.
The above figure shows the metamaterial, property window for the receive port using the should a heading, MSMQ Adapter. The queue name has been specified and the transactional property is set to true . In case of BizTalk Server 2004, the MSMQ Adapter needs to be downloaded. The adapter can be downloaded from here. The steps specified above can be used when working with BizTalk 2004 and to interact with a WCF service using MSMQ. WCF Service Endpoint on NetTCPBinding. NetTCPBinding uses the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) channel to thesis using metamaterial interact with the client and service. There is no BizTalk adapter for what a heading college essay, TCP, hence the only option available while using the netTCP-bound endpoint is to employ the proxy pattern discussed below. NetTCPBinding supports a duplex channel of communication – the thesis for obesity paper, service calls on the client interface to return the response without the client needing to listen explicitly.
In order to execute a sequence of process steps as a transaction, the should a heading for a college essay, expression shapes should be in annotated atomic transaction scope. Any exceptions occurring on the service call would show up as scope exception, which will also abort the what should a heading college, ambient transaction. NetTCPBinding supports transport-level and message-level security as defined by thesis on microstrip metamaterial, the binding configuration. Essay? NetTCPBinding can work in resume psoting scenarios where both client and service are on .NET. The working of should this sample for consuming WCF service exposed over a NetTCPBinding is as follows: Define and implement the service contract as shown earlier. Create a console application to host the WCF service. Generate a proxy class using svcutil.exe against the service contract defined earlier by running the svcutil.exe tool as shown below. The assumption here is that the service is exposed at the URL http://localhost:8000/Service.svc. The URL should be replaced with the greatest essay ever, actual address of the service. svcutil.exe *.wsdl *.xsd.
A proxy class and configuration file will generated. Note: We have tested the sample in this article using BizTalk 2006, not BizTalk 2004. While the steps for both are the same, working with WCF on a BizTalk Server 2004 machine will require installation of the .NET framework 3.0. What? This is greatest ever, because a reference has to be added to a project that contains code generated using WCF. Note: We are hosting the service at port number 8000 and exposing the service endpoint at port 9000.
Note: In the following code snippet, we are specifying the transport-level security and a heading essay the credential type: The app.config is as follows: In this approach explained above, we have a reference to thesis statement paper the WCF proxy inside BizTalk. We are invoking the WCF-exposed service using the Expression shape. The recommended approach is to send the message from a heading college essay, BizTalk in plain XML format to a .NET wrapper class. This class will create a .NET object from within its implementation and then call the WCF proxy. The transformations will be done in BizTalk but the deserialization will be handled in the .NET assembly. Message translation is best handled in BizTalk via the mapper and tips the rich set of functoids. Hence, we recommend translating messages required by the WCF service within BizTalk using the Mapper. However, the WCF service may expect and return a .NET Type and not an XML.
In such a case, converting the XML message is best done in the .NET assembly, helped by the rich serialization and deserialization support available in the .NET Framework. The following table summarizes the same: Recommended (use BizTalk Mapper) Not recommended. Is an implementation overhead. Exposing BizTalk Orchestrations as WCF Services. The following sample describes how a BizTalk orchestration can be exposed as a WCF service. The steps are: Convert the orchestration to a web service using the orchestration Web Services Publishing Wizard. Modify the what, web service to a WCF service by manually editing the code contents of the web services as described in the 'Configuration' section below.
Create a BizTalk project containing the orchestration which is to be first exposed as a ASMX web service. The orchestration process is as shown below and the actual code is present in the attached sample code: Figure 10: BizTalk Orchestration to be exposed as WCF service. Note that the orchestration has a public request response port through which it will interact with the web service. Figure 11: BizTalk Web Services Publishing Wizard. Figure 12: Selecting the for obesity paper, BizTalk assembly to be exposed as service. Figure 13: Selecting Orchestration Port that is to should a heading for a essay be exported.
Figure 14: Specifying properties for ASP.NET web service project. Note that the research evolution vs creation, service name inside the services tag should be the fully qualified name, i.e. with namespace, and should match the for a essay, service in the WCF service (.svc) file. http://localhost/Invoice_Proxy/Invoice_InventoryProcessWS_Port_2.asmx BTS as WCF service. On Microstrip Using? These services can now be consumed from a client. The sample code has been tested with the should essay, WCF binding set as basicHttpBinding. To add a web reference to greatest a WCF service in a BizTalk project, we need to create the service using the File New Web Site option and select the WCF service template. WCF service cannot be created using New Project option.
If Visual Studio is unable to create code files when adding web reference to what for a the WCF service created, it could be a proxy authentication issue. Check the proxy settings for the browser under Tools Internet options Connections LAN Settings. Resume Psoting? To view the application errors and to fully trust the target assembly, add the following sections under the web.config file for all scenarios: When sending messages from BizTalk to MSMQ we need to set the target namespace property of the schema to blank . If an instance of the schema is generated with the target namespace property specified, the WCF service is unable to process the message it picks up from MSMQ. For e.g., we can have a schema as follows: And not as follows: Refer to this blog entry for a heading for a, more details. When consuming a WCF service with wsHttpBinding from BizTalk 2004, the WSE 2.0 Adapter is unable to understand the WSDL generated by greatest, the WCF service. The WSE 3.0 Adapter depends on .NET Framework 3.0 which has to be installed on college the BizTalk 2004 system. It should solve the issue of consuming a WCF service with wsHttpBinding from antenna, a BizTalk 2004 application.
Creating services using Service-Oriented principles is key in many software projects and WCF is a very good framework for such a task. It enables developers to write the service logic once and expose the service over various endpoints which can use different bindings like web services, MSMQ, TCP, etc. What A Heading College Essay? Microsoft BizTalk Server can then be used to orchestrate the services and antenna using metamaterial implement business processes. This article presented options for enterprises that use BizTalk Server 2004 or BizTalk Server 2006 and wish to expose or consume WCF services from BizTalk. College? However, enterprises should look to thesis antenna metamaterial upgrading to BizTalk Server 2006 R2 that will have native support and out-of-the-box adapters for communicating with WCF services. Should A Heading College Essay? The options given in this paper are meant for scenarios where an upgrade to BizTalk Server 2006 R2 is not possible. Atul Gupta is Principal Architect with Microsoft Technology Center, Infosys. He works on BizTalk Server 2006, BizTalk Server 2006 R2 and Windows Presentation Foundation from .NET Framework 3.0 stack.
Amit Shah is an Architect with Microsoft Technology Center (Infosys Technologies Ltd). He is thesis statement, currently working on what for a college the creation of integration solutions on research vs creation the Microsoft platform using technologies like BizTalk Server, .NET Framework 3.0, Office SharePoint Server 2007 and what should for a essay SQL Server 2005. How To Improve Writing? Jitendra Pal Thethi is Principal Architect with Microsoft Technology Center, Infosys. He is based out of Redmond and part of the Catalytic IT Solution Sales team and also the what should a heading for a college, Infosys-MS Alliance team. Sarathy Sakshi is a test lead in the Connected System Division of Microsoft and is based in Redmond, WA.
He has worked in various areas of BizTalk server and has most recently been working on the WCF Adapter. Yumay Chang is a Technology Development Manager in the Enterprise Partner Group at Microsoft. She leads the thesis patch using, partner strategy on SOA and Business Process Management and supports partner in their adoption of Microsoft technologies.
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How long should a college application essay be
Bibliometrics, Citation And Citation Analysis. Chapter 3: Bibliometrics, Citation and Citation Analysis. Dr. Ranganathan S. R. (1969) coined the term 'Librametry' and presented his concept in what should for a college ASLIB conference held at Leamington Spa. He used the term to include statistical approaches to thesis statement, study library and its services. However, the practice of what should a heading college using quantitative method to measure information sources were made even before Dr.
Ranganathan but under different terms or without any particular term but 'Statistical Analysis' was in common use before the term Librametry. Papers Evolution. Cole and Eales (1917) graphically mapped the literature and called this method of analysis as 'Statistical analysis'. Hulme (1923) studied the literature and should for a essay, called it 'statistical bibliography', but the terms were found to be clumsy as it could easily be mistaken. How To Essay. Later the should a heading for a, term was coined as bibliometrics by Pritchard (1969). 3.2 Different Terminologies in Use:- Many attempts have been made to define the evolution, term bibliometrics and college, its analogous terms since the use of the term 'statistical bibliography' by Hulme (1923), and statement for obesity, according to him 'the purpose of statistical bibliography is to throw light on a heading college essay the process of resume psoting written communication and the nature and course of development of a discipline (in so far as this is displayed through written communication) by means of counting and analyzing its various facets of a heading for a essay written communication'.
Raising (1962), in his article clearly defined the resume psoting, term statistical bibliography as 'the assembling and interpretation of statistics relating to books and periodicals to demonstrate historical movements and to determine national and universal research, use of books and journal, and to ascertain in many local situations the general use of books and journals'. This definition is also treated as one of the classical definitions of bibliometrics. The term Bibliometrics was first coined by should a heading for a essay, Pritchard (1969) in preference to existing terminology 'statistical bibliography' as he felt there is fair likelihood to greatest, misinterpret it as bibliometrical methods to for a college essay, books and other media of communication'. According to Fairthorne (1969), statistical bibliography was 'Quantitative treatment of how to improve writing properties of recorded discourse and behaviour appertaining to it'. British Standard Glossary (1976) of a heading documentation explained the thesis statement paper, term bibliometrics as 'the study of use of documents and patterns of publication in which mathematical and statistical methods have been applied' which is basically similar to Pritchard's original definition of what a heading for a college bibliometrics.
Hawkins (1977), in for writing bibliography his on-line bibliometrics study interpreted bibliometrics term as 'The quantitative analysis of the bibliographic features of a body of literature'. Nicholas and Ritchie (1978), in their books entitled 'Literature on Bibliometrics' opined that bibliometrics provided information about the structure of knowledge and how it is communicated? They further added that bibliometrics studies fall mainly into two broad groups, describing characteristics or features of a literature (descriptive studies) and those examining the relationship formed between the components of what should essay literature (behavioural studies). More recently Plotter (1981) had defined bibliometrics as 'the study and measurement of the publication patterns of all forms of written communication and their authorship'. Schrader (1981), has also tried to research papers evolution, define the term in a more simplified manner and stated that bibliometrics is 'the scientific study of recorded discourse.' Broadus (1987b) presented a historical overview of various definitions of bibliometrics and what should a heading for a college essay, proposed an alternative definition for bibliometrics. According to him, bibliometrics is the quantitative study of physically published units or of bibliographic units or of surrogates of either. More explicitly Sengupta (1990), defines the term as 'organization, classification and quantitative evaluations along with their authorship by mathematical and statistical calculus'. A more elaborate concept of bibliometrics has been recently explained by Egghe (2000), as 'development and application of mathematical models and techniques to all aspects of communications.' From these definitions it is statement paper concluded that statistical bibliography is replaced by bibliometrics and it means study of measurement of the publication patterns of all forms of written communication and their authorship by means of should for a essay using citation studies. 3.3 What is Bibliometrics? The term 'bibliometrics' was first used by Pritchard (1969) in his article 'Statistical Bibliography or Bibliometrics' published in the 'Journal of Documentation'. 'Biblio' means book and writing, 'Metric' means a scale or measure. Bibliometric means application of statistical studies in library and a heading for a college essay, information science.
According to research papers evolution vs creation, Pritchard (1969), bibliometrics is what should a heading college essay defined as 'the application of for writing mathematics and statistical methods to books and should a heading, other media of communication.' Potter (1981) defines bibliometrics as 'the study and measurement of the publication pattern of all forms of written communication and their author'. In Bibliometrics and Librametry as an area in which studies 'information process and for writing annotated, information handling in libraries and should a heading for a college, information canters by quantitatively analyzing the characteristics and behaviour of documents, library staff, and statement for obesity paper, library users.' The study of bibliometrics and what should, Librametry include bibliometric distribution, citation analysis, library use studies, etc. It is also a quantitative study of literatures as reflected in annotated bibliographies. What A Heading College Essay. Bibliometrics is the use of thesis on microstrip patch antenna using metamaterial quantitative analysis and statistics to describe patterns of publication within a given field or body of literature. Bibliometrics is a set of methods to quantitatively analyze scientific and technological literature (Bellis 2009). The commonly used bibliometric methods are citation analysis and content analysis. Content analysis or textual analysis is a methodology used in the social sciences for studying the content of communication. Earl Babbie (2010) defines it as the what should college, study of recorded human communications, such as books, websites, paintings and laws.
According to resume psoting, Farooq Joubish (2011), content analysis is considered a scholarly methodology in the humanities by which texts are studied as to authorship, authenticity, or meaning. Later subject includes were philology, hermeneutics, and semiotics. Lasswell (1951, p.525 ) formulated the core questions of content analysis and stated that 'Who says what, to whom, why, to what extent and with what effect? Ole Holsti (1969) offers a broad definition of content analysis as any technique for making inferences by objectively and systematically identifying specified characteristics of messages. Kimberly (2002) offers a six-part definition of content analysis:Content analysis is a summarizing, quantitative analysis of messages that relies on the scientific method (including attention to objectivity, inter subjectivity, a priori design, reliability, validity, generalisability, replicability, and hypothesis testing) and is not limited as to the types of variables that may be measured or the context in which the messages are created or presented. Garfield (1983) and should a heading for a essay, Richard (2010) defined citation analysis as 'the examination of the frequency, patterns, and graphs of papers evolution citations in articles and books'. Content analysis uses citations in what should a heading for a scholarly works to establish links to other works or other researchers.
Citation analysis is one of the most widely used methods of bibliometrics. Ever. Martyn (1976), defined citation analysis as, 'Analysis of the citations or references or both which forms of part of the what a heading for a essay, scholarly publication.' According to Baughman (1974), 'Citation study is a systematic enquiry into the structural properties of the literature of the subject' he explains that the structure of literature is resume psoting of a good quality. Bibliometric method is what a heading for a college most often used in the field of library and information science; as well it has an equal applicability in other areas also. In fact, in many research fields use of bibliometric methods is carried out to explore the impact of papers their field, the impact of a set of researchers, or the impact of a particular paper etc. Bibliometrics are now used in quantitative research assessment exercises of academic output (Henderson et al 2009). The UK government is considering using bibliometrics as a possible auxiliary tool in its Research Excellence Framework, a process which may assess the quality of the research output of UK universities and on the basis of the assessment results, allocate research funding (http://www.ref.ac.uk/) Bibliometric methods have been used to trace relationships amongst academic journal citations. Citation analysis, which involves examining an item's referring documents, is used in searching for essay materials and analyzing their merit. Citation indices, such as Institute for Scientific Information's Web of thesis patch Science, allow users to search forward in time from a known article to more recent publications which cite the known item.
Today citation analysis tools are easily available to compute various impact measures for scholars based on what for a college essay data from citation indices. Essay Ever. These have various applications, from the identification of expert referees to review papers and grant proposals, to providing transparent data in support of academic merit review, tenure, and promotion decisions. Nicholas (1978) in his article 'Literature and Bibliometrics' explained the importance of what should for a citation analysis and bibliography, its applications in LIS. What A Heading For A Essay. He pointed out that information scientists and librarians use citation analysis to quantitatively assess the antenna using, core journal titles and watershed publications(less used or border lined publications) in particular disciplines; interrelationships between authors from different institutions and schools of thought; and related data about the academia. Some more pragmatic applications of this information includes the planning of what should college essay retrospective bibliographies, finding the age of material used in a discipline (Half life) , and comparison between use of recent publications versus older ones, comparing the coverage of secondary services which can help publishers gauge their achievements and resume psoting, competition, and college, can aid librarians in paper evaluating the effectiveness of their stock. Should A Heading College. There are also some limitations to patch antenna, the value of should a heading for a college essay citation data. Greatest Ever. They are often incomplete or biased; data has been largely collected manually (which is expensive), though citation indexes can also be used; incorrect citing of sources occurs continually; thus, further investigation is required to truly understand the rationale behind citing to allow it to be confidently applied. Thus it is revealed that bibliometric method is very useful to a heading essay, analyze the impact of literature in any subject areas and in LIS it is useful to decide the policies for different activities like acquisition, organization, stacking, introduction of on microstrip patch using new service, ranking of periodicals, half life of literature in any subject discipline formatting and collection development policies and what should a heading college essay, related policies etc. 3.4 Laws of Bibliometrics:- The three most commonly used laws in bibliometrics are.
1) Bradford's Law of tips annotated bibliography Scatter: - which describes how the literature of a subject area is distributed in its journals and which forms the basis for calculating how many journals contain a certain percentage of published articles? 2) Lotka's Law of Scientific Productivity: - A formula for measuring / predicting the productivity of scientific researchers. 3) Zipf's Law of Word Occurrence: - which describes the frequency of the appearance of certain words or more specifically, suggests that people are more likely to select and use familiar rather than unfamiliar words. Among all these three laws, Bradford's Law is more useful to what should a heading essay, LIS professionals and related to citation analysis. 3.4.1 Bradford's Law of Scatter:- Bradford (1934), pointed out that if scientific journals are arranged in order of decreasing productivity of articles on statement for obesity a given subject, they may be divided into what should a heading essay a nucleus of periodicals more particularly devoted to the subject and several groups and zones containing the same number of articles as the nucleus when the greatest essay, number of periodicals in the nucleus and succeeding zones will be 1: n: n2.
Bradford's Law states that journals in a single field can be divided into three parts, each containing the same number of articles: * A core of journals on the subject, relatively few in number, that produces approximately one-third of all the articles; * A second zone, containing the same number of articles as the first, but a greater number of journals, and. * A third zone, containing the should a heading for a college essay, same number of articles as the resume psoting, second, but a still greater number of journals. The mathematical relationship of the number of journals core to should for a college, the first zone is a constant n and to the second zone the relationship is thesis for obesity n. Bradford expressed this relationship as 1 : n : n. Bradford formulated his law after studying a bibliography of a heading for a geophysics, covering 326 journals in greatest essay ever the field. Should For A Essay. He discovered that 9 journals contained 429 articles, 59 contained 499 articles, and 258 contained 404 articles. So it took 9 journals to evolution vs creation, contribute one-third of the articles, 5 times of 9, or 45, to produce the next third, and 5 times 5 times 9, or 225, to produce the last third.
Bradford's Law serves as a general guideline to librarians in determining the number of core journals in any given field. Bradford's Law is not statistically accurate, but it is still commonly used as a general rule of thumb. 3.4.2 What is Citation:- Citation is a reference to a published or unpublished source (not always the original source). More precisely, a citation is an abbreviated alphanumeric expression (e.g.
Newell84) embedded in the body of an intellectual work that denotes an entry in the bibliographic references section of the should, work for for obesity the purpose of acknowledging the relevance of the works of others to college essay, the topic of discussion at the spot where the citation appears. Generally the combination of both the in-body citation and for writing annotated, the bibliographic entry constitutes what is commonly thought of as a citation (whereas bibliographic entries by themselves are not). A prime purpose of a citation is intellectual honesty to attribute prior or unoriginal work and ideas to the correct sources and to allow the reader to determine independently whether the referenced material supports the what for a essay, author's argument in statement paper the claimed way. 3.4.3 What is Reference:- Reference is what should a heading for a essay derived from Middle English referren, from statement for obesity paper Middle French rfrer, from Latin referre, to carry back, formed from the prefix re- and ferre, to bear. A large number of for a words derived from this root, including referee, reference, referendum, all retaining the basic meaning of the original Latin as a point, place or source of origin. A referee is the provider of evolution vs creation this source of origin, and a referent is the possessor of the source of origin, whether it is knowledge, matter or energy. Because of its meaning, the word reference is should a heading college used in every sphere of human knowledge, adopting shades of meaning particular to the contexts in which it is used.
References can take on many forms, including: a thought, a sensory perception that is audible (onomatopoeia), visual (text), olfactory, or tactile, emotional state, relationship with other, space-time coordinate, symbolic or alpha-numeric, a physical object or an energy projection; but, other concrete and abstract contexts exist as methods of defining references within the scope of the various fields that require an origin, point of departure, or an original form. This includes methods that intentionally hide the reference from some observers, as in cryptography. Citations are measured to find the different use patterns like author, chronology, geography, subject, forms etc in LIS. An essential part of research papers, particularly in science is the list of references indicating towards prior publications. Ziman (1968) has rightly indicated 'a scientific paper does not stand alone; it is embedded in the literature of the subject'. Similarly Nann (1976) defines 'A reference is the acknowledgement that one document gives to another; a citation is the acknowledgement that one document receives from another'. Malin (1968) says 'A citation implies a relationship between a part or the whole of the cited document and a part or the whole of the citing document.' From these statements of stalwarts it is very clear that citation has an importance while publishing scientific or research communications. It is must to cite the author from which data is used.
The research activity built on statement citing papers and a heading college, using previous knowledge. The use of citation and its study reveals many concepts useful for developing libraries properly. Statement For Obesity Paper. Citation analysis is the area of bibliometrics which deals with the study of their relationships which might be useful for bridging research. Weinstock (1974) identified reasons for citing and quoting references in research study as under. 1. Giving homage to pioneers. 2. Giving credit for related works (Homage to Press.)
3. Identifying methodology, equipment etc. 4. Providing background reading. 5. What Should A Heading For A College. Correcting one's own work. 6. Correcting the work of others. 7. Criticizing previous work and adding quality and innovation. 8. Substantiating claims.
9. Alerting to forthcoming work. 10. Providing leads to poorly disseminated or poorly indexed or uncited work. 11. Authenticating data and classes of fact-physical constants etc. 12. Identifying original publications in which an idea or concept was discussed. 13. Identifying original publication or other work describing a concept or term (e.g.HODGKIN'S Disease Pareto's Law, Friedel-Crafts reaction etc.) 14. Disclaiming work or ideas of others. (Negative Claims)
15. Disputing priority claims of others. (Negative Homage) Apart from these points references appended in the research study is valid indicator of its significance. The facts stated in tips for writing annotated bibliography the research needs to be supported by a heading for a college, earlier citations (studies) and there is always a relation between citing theses or book or an article indicating similarity of the research. 3.4.4 Importance of resume psoting Citations:- Ziman (1968), Price (1968), Narin (1976), Marin (1968) had opened that citations plays an what a heading essay, important role in research. Father they added that scientific paper or scientific research does not go alone, but it is embedded in the subject of literature, as a reference (citation) which is acknowledgement for the use of research evolution vs creation information by what essay, the another author who cites in his writing. The relation of cited and citing document stating 'a citation implies relationship between a part or the whole of the cited document and a part or the whole of the citing document.' Citation analysis is the area dealing with the bibliometrics and deals with study of relationship of thesis cited and citing document and such studies are essential to track the scholarly development in any subject field. 3.5 Citation Analysis:- When one author cites another author, a relationship is established.
Citation analysis uses citations in scholarly works to establish links. Many different links can be ascertained, such as links between authors, between scholarly works, between journals, between fields, or even between countries. Citations both from and to a certain document may be studied. One very common use of citation analysis is to determine the impact of a single author on a given field by counting the number of should a heading for a college times the author has been cited by others. Tips For Writing Bibliography. One possible drawback of this approach is that authors may be citing the single author in a negative context (saying that the author doesn't know what s/he's talking about (Osareh 1996).
3.5.1 Co-citation Coupling:- Co-citation coupling is a method used to establish a subject similarity between two documents. If papers A and B are both cited by paper C, they may be said to be related to one another, even though they don't directly cite each other. If papers A and B are both cited by what a heading college essay, many other papers, they have a stronger relationship. The more papers they are cited by, the stronger their relationship is. 3.5.2 Bibliographic Coupling:-
Bibliographic coupling operates on a similar principle, but in a way it is the mirror image of thesis antenna using metamaterial co-citation coupling. Bibliographic coupling links two papers that cite the same articles, so that if papers A and B both cite paper C, they may be said to what should a heading for a, be related, even though they don't directly cite each other. The more papers they both cite, the stronger their relationship is. 3.6 Reasons to conduct Bibliometric Studies:- Historically bibliometric methods have been used to trace relationships amongst academic journal citations. The bibliometric research uses various methods of citation analysis in order to establish relationships between authors or their work. The Bibliometric studies are conducted to identify the for obesity, peers, social change and the core journal, etc. indexing and Thesaurus, research, formulating search strategies in case of automated system, comparative assessment of the secondary services, Bibliographic control, preparation of should a heading for a retrospective bibliographic and library Management.
Collection development includes planning, implementation and evaluation of collections (Baughman, 1977): Planning is to map information needs, to develop aims and make decisions about priorities. Knowledge about the structure of a subject field and about the information resources used in the field is needed for planning the collection. Bibliometric methods such as citation analysis, bibliographic coupling, co-word analysis and co-citation analysis can be used to thesis statement for obesity, map the knowledge structure and the use of literature. Implementation of the collection includes library routines, communication and information provision. A working indexing language, which reflects the modern terminology, is needed to organise the collection. Knowledge about the important themes in a field gives a base for should a heading for a college essay developing the terminology. These themes are based on the knowledge structure received by bibliometric methods. Collection Evaluation is analysis and assessment of the collection according to its aim and functions. Different bibliometric methods such as citation analysis, analysis of the scattering of articles to journals and analysis of the obsolescence of literature are used for this purpose.
Application of bibliometric research identified by Wallace (1989), indicated that the use is for developing libraries. - Improving the bibliographic control of literature. - Identifying a core literature especially journals. - Classifying a literature. - Tracing the spread of ideas and growth of a literature. - Improving the efficiency of information handling services. - Predicting publishing trends and needs. - Describing patterns of book use by patrons. - Developing and evaluating library collections. 3.7 Strengths of Bibliometrics as a Research Approach:- Bibliometric studies are useful and have a quantitative base.
The method helps analysis status and strength is in: ' Methods are objective and repeatable. ' Results have a wide range of potential practical value. ' Does not require human subject interaction. ' High reliability in data that are collected unobtrusively, from the published record, and can be easily replicated by others. 3.7.1 Limitations of bibliometrics as a research approach:- Following few limitations of the study are observed by. Results are only valid to thesis statement for obesity, extent that citations are assumed to represent significant link between citing and cited documents. ' Technical issues related to data obtained from citation indexes and bibliographies. ' Variations and misspelling of author names, authors with same name, incomplete coverage of non-English publications.
3.8 Application of Bradford's Law in Library and Information Science Research:- Bradford's law is used to solve problems in journal collection management as well as resource development in any libraries. The basic concept is to conduct Bradford analyses of what a heading for a essay journals i.e. to sort the journals in Bradford zones and thus identify which belong to the core and which does not. Statement For Obesity. Any Bradford analysis involves three steps. 1. Identify many or all items (usually articles) published in this field; 2. List the sources (usually journals) that publish the articles (or items) in rank order beginning with the source that produces the a heading essay, most items;
3. While retaining the order of the sources, divide this list into groups (or zones) so that the number of items produced by each group of sources is about the for obesity paper, same. The 'most obvious potentials' of Bradford analyses are: ' Defining the core. ' The law of what a heading for a essay diminishing returns. ' Calculation of research papers vs creation cost based on various coverage. ' Setting priorities among journals. Bradford's law is should college used to solve practical problems related to information seeking and retrieval. An automatic option for sorting the output from online searches of journal literature, which he argued would help online users. 'Computerized sorting of hits by the journals in which they appear, and then of journals, high to low, by the number of hits appearing in each'. Special libraries and information officers make good use of data generated using bibliometric techniques in selecting and maintaining collections of the most needed serials. Bradford's law, Lotka's law, Zipf's law, and citation analysis have contributed to the effective operation of for obesity special libraries' From the various studies it is analysed major thrust areas of research in Library and Information Science are using application of what should essay bibliometrics and the reasons are: 1. Identify the quantum and structure literature on a specific subject during a particular period.
2. For Writing Annotated Bibliography. Examine the growth literature output in college essay a subject during a period of time. 3. Tips Bibliography. Identify the source and should a heading college, country-wise distribution of research literature in a particular subject. 4. Compare and measure the growth rate of literature on a particular subject in various countries. 5. Resume Psoting. Analyze the authorship pattern of literature on a particular subject published from various countries. 6. Analyze the degree of single versus multiple author publication and study the trend in authorship pattern. 7. Apply Lotka's authorship productivity concepts on the frequency distribution of authorship productivity. 8. Track the development of research literature on a particular subject and its language of publication during the period of coverage and analyze the trend in the language of publication.
9. Study the language of the publication in the context of quantum of what should for a pages. 10. Study the frequency distribution of applications in the context of country-wise breakdown. 11. Analyze quantitatively the annual literature output on a specific subject. 12. Identify the variety of research publication on a particular subject. 13. Analyze the trend among the thesis on microstrip patch antenna metamaterial, various types of what should a heading college publication. The recent developments and methods used and developed the techniques: 3.8.1 The impact factor:-
The impact factor, often abbreviated as IF, is statement paper a measure reflecting the average number of citations to articles published in science and social science journals. It is frequently used as a proxy for the relative importance of should a heading college a journal within its field. In case of journals with higher impact factors deemed to be more important than those of lower ones. The impact factor was devised by for writing annotated bibliography, Eugene Garfield, the founder of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), now part of Thomson Reuters. Impact factors are calculated yearly for those journals that are indexed in Thomson Reuters Journal Citation Reports and listed in . In a given year, the impact factor of a journal is the average number of a heading essay citations received per paper published in that journal during the greatest essay ever, two preceding years.[ For example, if a journal has an impact factor of 3 in 2008, then its papers published in a heading for a college essay 2006 and 2007 received 3 citations each on greatest average in 2008.
The 2008 impact factor of a journal would be calculated as follows, 2008 impact factors are actually published in 2009; they cannot be calculated until all of the 2008 publications have been processed by the indexing agency. A = the should a heading college essay, number of using times articles published in 2006 and 2007 were cited by indexed journals during 2008. B = the total number of citable items published by essay, that journal in 2006 and 2007. (Citable items are usually articles, reviews, proceedings, or notes; not editorials or Letters-to-the-Editor.) 2008 impact factor = A/B. If is used by many libraries as a tool for selecting Journals for subscription, similarly researcher try to contribute in using it journals for on microstrip using credits. New journals, which are indexed from their first published issue, will receive an impact factor after two years of indexing; in this case, the citations to the year prior to Volume 1, and for a essay, the number of articles published in the year prior to Volume 1 are known zero values. Journals that are indexed starting with a volume other than the first volume will not get an impact factor until they have been indexed for three years. Annuals and resume psoting, other irregular publications sometimes publish no items in what for a college essay a particular year, affecting the count. Papers Evolution Vs Creation. The impact factor relates to a specific time period; it is possible to calculate it for what a heading essay any desired period, and the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) also includes a 5-year impact factor.
The JCR shows rankings of journals by impact factor, by discipline such as organic chemistry or psychiatry. The terminology used later and becomes popular is Infometrics which covers: The h-index is an thesis antenna metamaterial, index that attempts to measure both the productivity and impact of the published work of a scientist or scholar. The index is based on the set of the scientist's most cited papers and the number of what should a heading essay citations that they have received in other publications. Improve Writing. The index can also be applied to the productivity and impact of a group of scientists, such as a department or university or country. The index was suggested by Jorge E. Hirsch, a physicist, as a tool for determining theoretical physicists' relative quality and is sometimes called the a heading for a essay, Hirsch index or Hirsch number. The h-index can be manually determined using citation databases or using automatic tools.
Subscription-based databases such as Scopus and research papers vs creation, the Web of Knowledge provide automated calculators. Harzing's (2011) Publish or Perish program calculates the what should a heading for a essay, h-index based on Google Scholar entries. In July 2011 Google trialed a tool which allows a limited number of scholars to papers, keep track of their own citations and also produces a h-index and an i10-index (Google Scholar Blog, 2011), the I10 index indicates the number of academic papers an author has written that have at least ten citations from others. What Should A Heading Essay. It was introduced in July 2011 by thesis statement paper, Google as part of their work on Google scholar. A search engine dedicated to academic and related papers. Each database is likely to produce a study different h for the same scholar, because of different coverage: Google Scholar has more citations than Scopus and Web of Science but the smaller citation collections tend to be more accurate. In addition, specific databases, such as the Stanford Physics Information Retrieval System (SPIRES) can automatically calculate h-index for what should for a researchers working in High Energy Physics. Infometrics is the study of quantitative aspects of bibliography information. This includes the production, dissemination and use of all forms of information, regardless of its form or origin. As such, infometrics encompasses the what a heading for a essay, fields of. ' Scientometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of science; ' Webometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of the World Wide Web; ' Cybermetrics, which is similar to how to improve, webometrics, but broadens its definition to what should a heading for a essay, include electronic resources; ' Bibliometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of recorded information.
Scientometrics and thesis on microstrip patch using metamaterial, webometrics are the latest methods. Scientometrics covers quantitative fashion of the development of science and of the mechanism of scientific research. ' Emphasizes investigations in which the development of science and what college, of the mechanism of scientific research is studied by means of (statistical) mathematical methods. ' Publishes original studies, short communications, preliminary reports, review papers, letters to the editor and greatest essay, book reviews on scientometrics. ' Includes the Journal of Research Communication Studies. Scientometrics is a heading for a college essay concerned with the quantitative features and papers evolution vs creation, characteristics of science and scientific research. Emphasis is what a heading for a college essay placed on investigations in which the development and mechanism of science are studied by statistical mathematical methods.
The journal publishes original studies, short communications, and preliminary reports, and vs creation, review papers, letters to the editor and book reviews on scientometrics. Due to its fully interdisciplinary character, the journal is indispensable to research workers and research administrators. It provides valuable assistance to librarians and documentalists in central scientific agencies, ministries, research institutes and laboratories. What Should A Heading For A College. Scientometrics includes the thesis on microstrip metamaterial, Journal of Research Communication Studies. Consequently its aims and scope cover that of the latter, namely, to bring the results of what should for a such investigations together in one place. Bibliometrics and scientometrics are two closely related approaches to measuring scientific publications and science in resume psoting general, respectively. In practice, much of the work that falls under this header involves various types of citation analysis, which looks at how scholars cite one another in publications. This data can show quite a bit about networks of scholars and scholarly communication, links between scholars, and the development of areas of should a heading for a college essay knowledge over time.
Bibliometrics are also one of the key ways of measuring the impact of scholarly publications. If an article is published in a journal with a high impact factor, which is determined in part by the number of citations to articles within a particular journal, this raises the publishing profile of the author. How To Essay Writing. The number of citations to that article over time is also a key measure of the productivity and the impact of that scholar. These techniques are very well developed for traditional citations among journal articles, but are much less clear for new types of outputs, including data sets, websites, and digitized collections. For items such as these, when researchers have used the materials to support their publications, they often don't have clear methods available to them to cite the material. Many of the style guides do not have clear guidance for how to cite a database, for instance, or whether to cite a digitized resource in a way to identify its digital location, or that cites the original item, whether or not the researcher actually consulted it.
3.9.2 Webometrics (Cyber metrics):- The concept of what should a heading for a college webometrics is based on bibliometrics, because like the bibliometrics study, one can measure the different quantitative aspect of the web in webometrics study. Secondly it is on microstrip using based on Infometrics. What A Heading College Essay. The Infometrics study is such type of study, which measures the quantitative aspect of any type of information and through webometrics study one can get the information about web (web site). Thesis Statement For Obesity Paper. That's why the above phrase is used. The science of webometrics (also Cyber metrics) tries to should, measure the World Wide Web to tips for writing annotated bibliography, get knowledge about the number and types of should for a hyperlinks, structure of the World Wide Web and usage patterns. According to for writing bibliography, Bjrneborn and Ingwersen (2004), the definition of webometrics is the study of the quantitative aspects of the construction and use of information resources, structures and should, technologies on essay writing the Web drawing on bibliometric and Infometrics approaches. The term webometrics was first coined by Almind and Ingwersen (1997).
A second definition of webometrics has also been introduced as the study of web-based content with primarily quantitative methods for social science research goals using techniques that are not specific to one field of study (Thelwall, 2009), which emphasizes the development of applied methods for use in what a heading college the wider social sciences. The purpose of this alternative definition was to greatest ever, help and publicize appropriate methods outside the information science discipline rather than to replace the original definition within information science. Similar scientific fields are bibliometrics, infometrics, scientometrics, virtual ethnography, and web mining. One relatively straightforward measure is the Web Impact Factor (WIF) introduced by Ingwersen (1998). The WIF measure may be defined as the number of web pages in a web site receiving links from other web sites, divided by the number of should a heading web pages published in the site that are accessible to thesis statement for obesity, the crawler.
However the use of WIF has been disregarded due to the mathematical artifacts derived from power law distributions of these variables. Other similar indicators using size of the what should a heading for a, institution instead of number of web pages have been proved more useful. There is one electronic journal, Cyber metrics published since 1997 by the Spanish National Research Council that is thesis patch using devoted entirely to what, this discipline. Cyber metrics is a branch of knowledge which employs mathematical and statistical techniques of papers quantity web sites or their components and should a heading for a college essay, concepts, measure their growth, stability, propagation, and use examines the authenticity of content, establish laws governing these factors, studies the efficiency of thesis statement for obesity cyber information services and systems, services and products and assesses the impact of cyber age on society. Citations in scholarly works are used to establish links to other works. It is one of the most widely used methods of bibliometrics and studies reference to and from documents Gooden (2001). The benefit of bibliometrics and citation analysis is expressed by should college, Van Raan (2003), which is reinforced by the studies (Lal and Panda, 1996, Aksnes 2006) that have used this method of research enquiry to evaluate a library collection. Citation analysis reveals interesting information about knowledge producers in research papers evolution terms their information seeking behaviour and what should for a essay, usage of various information sources.
It can highlight the familiarity, awareness and usage of research vs creation knowledge producers regarding the online and print information sources. Citation analysis examines the frequency, patterns and graphs of what college essay citations in articles and resume psoting, books (Garfield, 1983). This chapter satisfy the objective set for the study i.e. 'To study the significance of citations as well as citation study and bibliometrics'. A Heading College Essay. This chapter elaborates the detailed study of citations, reference, need of citation study and thesis statement for obesity paper, laws etc. ' Aksnes, D.W. (2006), Citation rates and perceptions of scientific contribution. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 57(2), p.169-185. ' Bellis, De Nicola (2009). Bibliometrics and citation analysis: from the what should, Science citation index to Cybermetrics.
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Sources of information on specific subjects. Engineering, 1934, 137 (3550), p.85-86. ' British Standards Institution. British standards of documentation terms. BSI; London; 1976, p.7. ' Broadus R N (1987a), early approaches to bibliometrics, journal of the American society for information science, 38, p.127-129.
' Cole, F J and Eales Nellie B (1917), the history of comparative anatomy: a statistical analysis of the literature, Science Progress (11), p.578-596. ' Earl Babbie (2010), the practice of social research, 10th edition, Wadsworth, Thomson Learning Inc., ISBN 0-534-62029-9. ' Egghe L (2000), Lectures Potter, W G (1981) Introduction to Bibliometrics. Library Trends Vol 30, p.5. ' Egghe L (2000).
A heuristic study of the how to, first-citation distribution. What Should A Heading College Essay. Scientometrics 48(3), p.345-359. ' Fairthorne, R. A. (1969), Empirical hyperbolic distributions (Bradford-Zipf-Mandelbrot) for bibliometric description and prediction, Journal of Documentation, 25, p.319'343. ' Fairthrone R A (1969), Empirical hyperbolic distributions for bibliometric description and prediction, Journal of Documentation, 25, p.319. ' Farooq Joubish and Ashraf Khurram (2011), outlook on some concepts in the curriculum of papers social studies, World Applied Science Journal 12(9), p.1374-1377. ISSN 1818-4952. ' Garfield, E (1974), Citation Indexing: Its theory and application in science, Technology and Humanities, New York, Wiley, ' Garfield, E. (1983). Citation Indexing - Its Theory and Application in Science, Technology and Humanities.
Philadelphia: ISI Press. Retrieved November 4, 2011 from Located at http://garfield.library.upenn.edu/ci/contents.pdf. accessed on 12.04.2011. ' Garfield, E.(1983) Citation Indexing - Its Theory and Application in Science, Technology and Humanities Philadelphia's Press. ' Gooden, A.M. (2001). What Should Essay. Citation analysis of chemistry doctoral dissertations: An Ohio State University case study.
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The quantitative crunch: the impact of bibliometric research quality assessment exercises on academic development at on microstrip antenna metamaterial, small conferences, Campus-Wide Information Systems, Vol 26, No. 3, p.149'167. ' Higher Education Funding Council for England, Located at http://www.hefce.ac.uk/Research/ref/. and http://www.ref.ac.uk/ accessed on 12th May 2012. ' Hjreppe, P (1982), Supplement to bibliography bibliometrics and citation indexing, 4, p.241-273. ' Hjreppe, R (1980), a bibliography of what bibliometrics an dictation indexing and papers evolution, analysis, Royal institute of Technology library, Stockholm, Sweden. Located at http://www.gslis.utexas.edu/ palmquis/courses/biblio.html#Laws and http://www.netugc.com/librametric-bibliometric-scientometrics-informetrics accessed on what a heading essay 25.08.2012.
' Hulme, E.W. (1923), Statistical Bibliography in essay ever Relation to the Growth of Modern Civilization, Grafton, London. p9. ' Kannappanavar, B U (1991), Citation analysis of the doctoral dissertation in library and a heading for a essay, information science accepted by the universities in Karnataka, Karnataka University, Dharwad, p. 88. (Ph. Statement Paper. D Thesis) ' Lal, A., Panda, S (1996). Research in plant pathology: A bibliometric analysis. Should College. Library Science with a Slant to Documentation and Information Studies, 33(3), p.135-147. ' Lasswell Harold (1951), the analysis of political behavior: An empirical approach, Rautledge, London, p.525. ' Lotka A J (1926), the essay, frequency distribution of should essay scientific productivity, Journal of the research papers vs creation, Washington Academy of Sciences, Vol. 16 (12), p.317-323. ' Malin M V (1968), the science citation index: A new concept in Indexing, Library trends, Vol.
16, p. Should For A College Essay. 376. ' Martin, M U (1968), Science citation index: A new concept in indexing, Library Trends, Vol. 16, p.376. ' Martyn L A (1976), Use studies in improve writing library planning, Library Trends 24(30). ' Nann F et al (1976), Evaluative bibliometrics: The use of publications and should a heading college essay, citation analysis in the evaluation of thesis for obesity paper scientific activity, cherry Hill, N J, Computer Horizon Inc, p.334-337. ' Narin, Francis and et.
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' Potter W G (1981), Introduction to bibliometrics, Library Trends, Vol. 30, p.5. ' Pritchard A (1969), Statistical bibliography an interim bibliography, New Western Polytechnic school of Librarianship, London. ' Pritchard A (1969), statistical bibliography; an interim bibliography, North-western polytechnic, school of Librarianship, p.60. ' Pritchard, A and Witting, G R (1960), Bibliometrics: A bibliography and index (1874-1959), Aaih Books, Westford, ' Raising L (1962), Statistical bibliography in the health sciences, Bulletin the medical library Association, 50, p.450-461. ' Ranganathan S. R. (1969) Librametry and its scope. DRTC Seminar (7) paper DA Bangalore: DRTC, ISI and Sarada Ranganathan Endowment of Library Science. Reprinted in : JISSI : The International Journal of thesis patch antenna Scientometrics and what a heading for a essay, Infometrics; Vol.1, No.1 (1995), p.15-21. (ISSN-0971-6696) ' Rubin, Richard (2010). Foundations of library and information science (3rd ed.). New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers. Statement Paper. ISBN 978-1-55570-690-6.
Accessed at http://books.google.com/books?id=Pk1TSAAACAAJ accessed on 09.02.2012. ' Von Sara Ungern-Sternberg Applications in college teaching bibliometrics, PhD, Senior lecturer, Abo Akademi University, Department of Library and Information Science, FINLAND. ' Schrader, Alvin M. (1981) Teaching Bibliometrics, Library Trends 30, p.151-172. ' Sengupta I N (1990), Bibliometrics and its application in information science and research evolution, libraries, Atlantic, New Delhi, p.256. ' Swapna Kumar Patra and Prakash Chand (2006), 'Library and what a heading for a college essay, Information science Research in India: a Bibliometric Study' Annals of Library and Information Studies, Vol 53, December, p.219-223.
' Van Raan, A.F.J. (2003). The use of bibliometric analysis in research performance assessment and monitoring of interdisciplinary scientific developments. Papers. Technikfolgenabschatzung, Theories und Praxis/ Technology Assessment- Theory and should for a essay, Practice, 12(1), p.20-29. ' Weinstock M (1974), Citation Index, Encyclopedia of library and information science, Vol.5, New York, Dekker, p.19. ' Ziman John M (1968), Public knowledge: An essay concerning the social dimension of greatest science, Cambridge, Cambridge university press, p.58. ' Zipf, G. K. (1949) 'Human Behavior and the Principle of should a heading college essay Least Effort' Reading, MA: Addison- Wesley Publishing co, p.34. Chapter 4: Progress of Education and Research in tips for writing LIS. Chapter/ Section Description Pages.
4.1 Introduction 104. 4.2 LIS Education : Global Overview 104. 4.3 Library and Information Science Education in India 105. 4.4 Historical Development 107. 4.5 Present Scenario of LIS Education in India 108. 4.6 Objectives of Library and Information Science Education 109. 4.7 Levels of a heading essay Education 110. 4.8 First Course of Library Science in India (Certificate, Diploma and Training Courses) 112. 4.9 Post Graduate Diploma Courses 113. 4.10 Degree Courses 114.
4.11 Documentation Research and thesis on microstrip patch metamaterial, Training Centre (DRTC) 114. 4.12 Five Year Integrated Course in LIS 115. 4.13 Present Status of LIS Education in India 115. 4.14 Specialization 116. 4.15 Syllabus 116.
4.16 ICT as an Integral Part 116. 4,17 Practical Exposure 117. 4.18 Problems with Present LIS Education and Research 117. 4.19 LIS Research in India 117. 4.20 LIS Research: Global Overview 119. 4.21 Research Trend in Indian Universities 128. Chapter 4: Progress of Education and Research in LIS. Higher education in each country has its own unique form of system and varies from should a heading essay streams or branches of knowledge. Greatest Ever. Higher education is imparted by universities and in colleges having equal facilities.
Academics in higher education plays an important role in what should a heading for a making the society strong as stated different policies are adopted in different countries similarly LIS is a specific subject discipline which support in all educational branches through library systems. Thesis Statement Paper. Schools of a heading college essay library science provide useful professional education universally and develop library and information professionals to manage the libraries efficiently. The LIS schools have more emphasis towards developing technical and managerial skills through the LIS education. Following paragraphs briefly narrated the status of resume psoting LIS education. 4.2 LIS Education: Global Overview: Tsuji et al (2006), pointed out it in his study that the main theme in LIS education Japan was developed qualified librarians (Shisho) and assistant librarians (Shisho-ho) for public libraries and as well as qualified teacher librarian (shisho-kyouyu) for school libraries.
There is no formal education system for academic and special libraries. In education field life line learning, library management, information reference service, information retrieval, library organization, copy right, information literacy etc. were more focused. Wilson (2012), in his article 'Fifty years of LIS education' in USA and what should a heading essay, conducted a survey of research productivity and for writing annotated bibliography, LIS educators during the period 1959-2008. Author narrated the progress of LIS education in USA and stated that prior to 1960s practicing librarians were teaching LIS education according to syllabus and examination conducted by what should a heading college, library associations and similar status was also in Australia and Library Association Australia (now Australia library and information association (ALIA) was taking care of the education system.. Latter LIS education moved to higher education institute since 1980. Chu (2006) in his paper 'Curricula of LIS programs in the USA: A content analysis' in which the syllabi was reviewed by resume psoting, author from 45 ALA accredited LIS master programs in USA.
This study brought to the notice that more elective courses offered in LIS education in USA, while number of core requirement is for a essay reduced to few. Author has also pointed that 10% of the LIS courses in USA are designed in such a way to deal will emerging subject and latest development in the field of essay writing LIS. Thus subjects covered in the syllabus deals with knowledge organization, reference and information sources services, management, research in LIS, ICT, collection development, information use etc. As indicated by author in USA education system is giving more emphasis on elective subject like ICT, librarianship, resources and services, technical services etc. to manage latest situation. Now LIS courses clusters were introduced, which covers: - Information seeking behaviour. - Digital publishing etc. 4.3 Library and what for a essay, Information Science Education in how to improve essay writing India:- LIS education in India is completing a century of its existence during the period progress have been achieved in developing LIS education to tune with current practices. What A Heading For A College Essay. Radhakrishanan Commission, Kothari Commission, National Knowledge Commission, UGC, NAAC put more efforts in education sector including LIS by establishing advisory commission for libraries, national policy for library etc. Curriculum Development Commission (CDC) continues grading and upgraded of LIS education in India.
The progress from certificate courses to research level through regular and distance mode took leading developing education in India (Joshi, 2010). There has been enormous growth in education and higher education around the globe. Every country worth its name and has developed a system of education and infrastructure to educate its people, and India is no exception. There has been a fast growth in institution of higher education since the dawn of twentieth century and more particularly, after India attained independence in research 1947. The new India started its development program to achieve the new educational, cultural and economic objectives at the national level. Such developments at these institutions contributed to the development of should college essay more libraries, which in turn had to resume psoting, accept new responsibilities to meet society's changing needs and demands. What Should College. Libraries are recognized to play an important role in education, scientific research and social-economic development of a country. This envisages the need for professionally qualified personnel to manage and run the libraries and information centres effectively and efficiently.
In order to writing, feed the growing number of what should for a essay libraries, more trained library professionals were needed. For this purpose, library science departments started springing up, and library science developed into a distinct field of for writing annotated bibliography specialization with its own normative principles, theories, techniques, and practices that were deemed sufficient to what college essay, meet the growing dimensions of library services. Handling of recorded knowledge in modern libraries has given birth to the functional aspects of collecting, organizing and promoting the use of reading materials relevant to the users through information transfer activities. These activities, no doubt, assist in defining the spectrum of studies for librarianship. Improve. The basic tenet of LIS education is to what should a heading for a essay, provide balanced training, integrating theory with practical exercises, and to cover all aspects of professional work with equal emphasis embracing new frontier of librarianship. LIS education aims at providing trained manpower to manage different types of libraries, information and documentation centres which, over greatest ever, a period of time have undergone changes in terms of needs, functions, types and range of services offered as well as tools and what college, techniques being used when offering the services. Research in library and information science in India is not deep rooted.
In the how to improve writing, beginning it was in the form of what should college essay a trial and error method. It was Padamashree S R Ranganathan (1889-1972) father of library science who lifted trail librarianship to the level of a science with the formulation of laws of library science, and using, establishment library schools and research centres. He even graded them as normative principles, fundamental laws, canons, principles and postulates. Ranganathan cut new grounds and blazed new practices in library and information science initially by solo research. This is evidence from the published literature that Ranganathan era's is characterized by a period of intellectual contribution to what should for a essay, the library and information science, particularly library classification.
The root of the library and information science research in India were off shoots from the country first LIS intellectual workshop (i.e., Department of Library and Information Science, University of Delhi) instituted by Dr S R Ranganathan a day of thesis library science profession in India in 1946. The first research degree in a heading college the library and information science in the country and even in the commonwealth countries was awarded by the University of Delhi in 1957 to D B Krishna Rao for his thesis 'Facet Analysis and Depth Classification of Agriculture' under the supervision of bibliography Dr. S R Ranganathan. 4.4 Historical Development:- The modern period in the history of education for librarianship began in what should for a essay the mid-1800s as librarians around the world recognized that systematic education and training were required so that proper order could be brought to the collections that had been growing in all libraries. Tips For Writing. The need for professionally qualified personnel to manage these libraries effectively and efficiently was duly recognized during the first half of the present and consequently, the library education programme had been started at several places much before Independence. The history of the a heading for a college essay, education of library science in India may be traced far back as the year of 1911 with the starting of thesis statement for obesity paper a short term training programme in library science in a heading the Baroda State, under the tips annotated, patronage of Maharaja Sayajirao Gaikwad of Baroda, who, impressed by the splendid work done by public libraries in the West, secured the services of an American librarian Mr. What College Essay. W. A. Borden as Director of the State Library Department. Research Evolution. Mr. Bordon had been a pupil of Mr.
Melvil Dewey, who established the first library school in the Columbia College, New York in 1887. What Should For A College. In 1915, another student of Dewey, Mr. A Dickenson, the then librarian of Punjab University, Lahore started a three months apprentice training programme for working librarians. Before Independence, only five universities namely the Andhra University, Banaras Hindu University, Calcutta University and Madras University were offering diploma course in resume psoting library science. Should A Heading College Essay. Library education was given a new status and design by Professor S. R. Ranganathan in 1920, when the first systematic programme in library education was started under the auspices of the Madras Library Association in collaboration with the Madras University. This library school was subsequently taken over by the Madras University in 1931 and in 1937 the greatest ever, course was converted into Postgraduate (PG) Diploma in Library Science. For A College Essay. This was the first diploma programme in Library Science in India. University of Delhi was the first university to establish a full-fledged Department of Library Science just before independence in how to essay 1946, and started admitting students to the PG Diploma in 1947. In 1951, the diploma was changed to what a heading for a essay, Master in Library Science (M.Lib.Sc).
Later, between 1956 to 1959, six new LIS departments were established at Aligarh Muslim University, M.S.University of Baroda, Nagpur University, Osmania University, Pune University and Vikram University. Since 1960s, the number of LIS departments has continued to increase. After Independence the stimulus for the growth and development of libraries and library science education has come from the progress in and extension of greatest ever education, scientific research and programmes of socio-economic development which started in 1951 with the commencement of the First Five-Year Plan. As a result of these developments, Library and Information Science today is a well-recognized discipline of study and research at the post-graduate level in more than hundred universities in the country. The Baroda and Nagpur universities started training course in library science in 1956 and the Vikram University in 1957. 4.5 Present scenario of what should college LIS Education in India:- Since its inception decades ago, LIS education has grown and antenna using metamaterial, developed into a full-fledged multi-disciplinary subject. LIS courses at bachelors, masters and research level are being impacted by different institutions ' university departments, colleges, library associations and specialized institutions. There are now 96 universities in India imparting Library and Information Science education as independent departments in different levels. The list is shown in appendix. Apart from these departments, there are also specialized RD organizations imparting library and information science education.
Worth mentioning is the two years Associateship in college Documentation and Information Science (ADIS) imparted by Documentation Research and Training Institute (DRTC), Indian Statistical Institute, Bangalore (Karnataka) and National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR) formerly INSDOC, New Delhi which is equivalent to Mater degree of Library and Information Science (LIS). In addition to, these universities/departments there are several other open universities imparting library education as distance education. The professional associations such as Delhi Library Association (DLA) and the polytechnic institutions throughout the country are also imparting LIS education as lower level such as Certificate/Diploma in Library and research papers, Information Science. Should A Heading For A. With the realization of the importance of higher education and research, research in annotated bibliography Library education is not lagging behind like other disciplines. The University Grants Commission (UGC) and the Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) are promoting to research activity in library and information science by awarding scholarships to research and doctoral students. 4.6 Objectives of Library and Information Science Education:- The goal of library and information science education is the preparation of personnel for the task of successful performance at different levels of competence in different types of libraries with an what a heading for a college, insight into the role of these libraries in a fast changing society. It should impart a thorough grounding in the intellectual foundations of the profession and greatest ever, competence in the technical and technological skills required for their day-to-day practice in different positions. In other words, education for library and information science should be both knowledge and theory oriented task or practice oriented. The two aspects of theory and practice blend harmoniously in a sound programme of what essay library and information science education because on this aspects LIS education depend the effectiveness and success of the vs creation, programme. In achieving this objective the methods of teaching and evaluation employed are as important as the quality of the what should a heading college, faculty.
The main objectives of LIS profession are to provide training for building up leadership qualities among the for writing annotated, LIS profession develop knowledge on what should a heading college essay the latest techniques of information storage, transfer and resume psoting, retrieval of information help to acquire necessary skills in handling information, accessing and what should a heading college essay, application of electronic resources, tools and resume psoting, media; and help to know the latest developments in the Information Technology (IT) To sum up, the what for a college, basic aims of library and how to essay, information science education may be as follows. ' To develop necessary technical skills; ' To develop administrative skills; ' To develop service orientation; ' To develop thorough knowledge of various sources of information, necessary to give traditional and modern library services. ' To develop professional awareness. 4.7 Levels of Education:- Out of the 96 university departments, 56 departments conduct one-year Bachelors degree and one year Masters Degree in Library and Information Science at should college essay, the postgraduate level. Thirteen of these universities conduct two years integrated Masters Degree in Library Science. Tips For Writing Annotated Bibliography. These programme further leads to M.Phil. and PhD levels. The levels of LIS education in India are discussed as follows in brief: 1.7.1 Certificate/Diploma in Library Science (C/D. Should A Heading Essay. Lib. Sc.):-
Many polytechnic colleges, schools and research papers vs creation, Library Associations impart the low level of library science courses in India having duration of six months to one year. What Should For A. The basic qualification for these courses is 10+2. Tips For Writing Annotated. This course prepares students for low level professional positions in libraries such as Library Attendant, Library Clerk, etc. 1.7.2 Bachelor of Library and Information Science (BLIS) after any graduation:- This is a one-year post graduate degree course. What Should College. The basic eligibility is a three years degree from any discipline. This course prepares students for junior professional positions at all types of libraries and they perform technical libraries. 1.7.3 Master of Library and Information Science (MLIS):- In the early 19th Century, young people learned librarianship by working under the more experienced practitioners.
But, gradually the tasks performed by librarians became more complex and more dependent on greatest ever technology. As a result, the study of should a heading for a library science has moved from the work-setting to professional schools in Universities. The first ever library school was started by papers vs creation, Melvil Dewey in USA in 1887 at Columbia College (now Columbia University). In 1889 the a heading, programme moved to the New York State Library in Albany when Dewey became the Director there. The success of Dewey's training programme and resume psoting, the publication of Training for Library Service, a book by the economist Charles Williamson in 1923, led other universities, institutes of what should college essay technology, and large public libraries to establish their own professional degree programmes in library science. Research Vs Creation. Master of a heading for a essay Library and Information Science is imparted as a one-year post graduate degree course in some universities while in some, it is conducted as a two years integrated course. Many universities which offered one year BLISc and greatest essay ever, MLISc courses are now switching to two years integrated MLIS course in the line of other masters degree courses.
The North East Hill University (NEHU), RTM Nagpur, Punjab University Chandigarh, Karnataka University, Dharwad, etc are now offering two years MLISc course. What A Heading For A College Essay. This course trains persons for thesis on microstrip patch antenna metamaterial senior professional position in libraries, documentation centres and/or information centres and teachers as well. 1.7.4 Associateship in Documentation and Information Science (ADIS):- The Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC), Bangalore (Karnataka) offers two years Associateship in Documentation and Information Science (Now know as Master of Science in Information Science). The National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources (NISCAIR), New Delhi , formerly INSDOC also impart two years documentation programme i.e., Associateship in Documentation (AID) after graduation.
The course offered by the DRTC and NISCAIR have upper age on the courses as offered by the university departments in what should college terms of ICT syllabus and intake of the enrolments. 1.7.5 Master of Philosophy in Library and Information Science (M.Phil):- In Library and Information Science prepares a student for further advanced research in LIS. The basic eligibility for tips bibliography admission for what should a heading essay this programme is minimum 55% MLISc or any equivalent degree recognized by resume psoting, the UGC. With candidates having more qualifications are being preferred for superior position, many students are opting for M.Phil. Courses to better equip them for better positions and develop research activity. 1.7.6 Doctor of Philosophy of Library and should a heading for a college essay, Information Science:- This is an advanced level of research programme being offered after the completion of how to essay MLISc or M.Phil.
The general aim of should college essay a research degree, whether M.Phil. or Ph.D. is to provide training in doing research as well as to develop in the candidate a critical and analytical process of thinking with the purpose that they would be able to provide leadership in the profession. They would also be able to help librarians and information scientists to develop techniques and skills required to meet their requirements of the fast changing society. They should be able to research papers, identify the needs, set objectives, identify and analyze the problems and find appropriate solutions. They would also be in a position to participate in the planning, organization and implementation of what should for a college essay programmes at various levels. 1.8 First Course of Library Science in India(Certificate, Diploma and essay ever, Training courses):- In India the existence of in service training was initiated by John Macfarlane, the first librarian of the what college essay, Imperial Library (Now National Library) at Calcutta from greatest essay ever 1901-06, as mentioned in some reports. In subsequent years, the training programme was opened to the staff of other libraries and should for a college essay, even those interested in librarianship who deals with books and other documents. 1.8.1 Baroda School:- In 1911, Sayajirao Gaikwad (1862-1939), the ruler of Baroda state called the American librarian Mr.
William Allenson Borden (1853-1931), a disciple of Melvil Dewey to create a cadre of men for the newly established libraries in the state library system. In 1912, he initiated the resume psoting, first training school in library education in India. In 1913, another training class for working librarians of town libraries was started. These classes continued even after the departure of Borden. 1.8.2 Lahore School:- In 1912, the Punjab University called another librarian Mr. Asa Don Dickinson (1876'1960) from USA. Should A Heading College Essay. He started the second educational course of three month duration in library science in resume psoting the year 1915.
This happens to be the first university course in India. What College. Mr. Asa Don Dickinson later becomes the Librarian of Panjab University, Lahore (now Pakistan) during 1915'1916. 1.8.3 Andhra Desha:- The Andhra Desha Library Association (founded in 1914) started conducting 'training classes for the library workers' at on microstrip patch, Vijayawada in 1920. The classes covered a module on running adult education classes in addition to library technique. 1.8.4 Mysore State:- In 1920, a course for what should college the training of librarians was conducted at Bangalore under the 'program of library development' initiated by the then Dewan of Mysore Mr. M. Visweswaraya. 1.8.5 Madras Library Association:-
A summer school for college librarians and writing, lecturers in charge of college libraries in Madras was held in 1928 and repeated in 1930. The Madras Library Association also organized a regular certificate course in library science from 1929. Then in 1931, University of Madras took up the training course of MALA in 1931 and started offering the course on a regular basis. 1.8.6 Andhra University:- Andhra University started a certificate course in 1935, which was letter abandoned. 1.8.7 Imperial Library, Calcutta:- The Imperial library, Calcutta started a training class under the supervision of its librarian Mr.
K. M. What For A. Asudulah in 1935. It was a full time regular Diploma course in on microstrip using metamaterial librarianship at the Imperial Library, Calcutta (now National Library, Kolkata). It continued till 1946. 4.9 Post Graduate Diploma courses:- University of Madras, in 1937, introduced a one year Post Graduate Diploma course in what should for a college essay place of the certificate course of three month duration. Thesis Patch Metamaterial. This was the first P G Diploma in a heading for a college library science in India. The second university to research evolution, start a post graduate diploma course was the Banaras Hindu University in 1942. What A Heading For A. University of Bombay initiated a diploma course similar to Banaras Hindu University in 1943.
A training course for thesis statement for obesity the staff working in various government organizations was started in 1953. This course was recognized as equivalent to the university diploma courses. 4.10 Degree Courses:- In 1947, Aligarh Muslim University started B.Lib. Science Course for the first time in the country. University of Delhi was the first university to establish a full fledged Department of Library Science in 1946. It also instituted the first post diploma degree course in 1948. In 1949, the structure was changed. The programme of should for a essay Master of annotated bibliography Library Science was introduced as a two year course with the first year leading to Bachelor of Library Science. In between 1956-59, six new LIS departments were established at college essay, Aligarh Muslim University, MS University of research Baroda, Nagpur University, Osmania University, Pune University and Vikram University.
In 1960, Madras University replaced its full time one year diploma course to B.Lib.Sc. Should For A Essay. Degree course. Papers Evolution Vs Creation. By mid 1960, many other universities had fallen in the line of university of Madras following the recommendation of Review Committee Report of UGC in introducing different degree courses. What Should For A Essay. The Government Polytechnique for women, Ambala, Bangalore, Chandigarh, Delhi, Jullandhur, and Rourkela started post matric (class X) diploma courses of two years duration in late 1960s. 4.11 Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC):- In 1962, Dr. S. R. Ranganathan established Documentation Research and Training Centre at resume psoting, Bangalore. Previously DRTC courses were of should for a college essay 14 month duration which was later on moved to two years programme. INSDOC conducted a short term course for Asian Documentalists in 1963. In 1964, it started a one year post graduate course in Documentation and Reprography leading to 'Associateship in Documentation and Reprography'.
In 1977, the programme was renamed as 'Associateship in Information Science (AIS)'. Resume Psoting. On September 30, 2002, INSDOC merged with the National Institute of Science Communication (NISCOM) and was renamed as National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources (NISCAIR). At present, it is conducting 'Courses in Information Science'. The DRTC and NISCAIR concentrate on the training of professionals for special and industrial libraries and what college, information centres. Their course contents are biased toward information science and technology. The programme of these two institutes are class apart from other similar programmes offered by various institutes. In India advanced professional education has remained attached to universities, though there are some regional library associations conducting certificate courses of a few months duration and women polytechnics offering post-masters two year diplomas in library science to train paraprofessionals. At present, about 107 institutions, mostly university colleges and polytechnics, have library science education courses. Out of papers evolution vs creation these, M. What A Heading For A. Lib. I. Sc. On Microstrip Patch Antenna. course is what a heading for a being offered by more than 75 universities.
4.12 Five Year Integrated Course in LIS:- In 2010, University of Calcutta introduces five year integrated course in Library and Information Science and thus becomes the first university to launch such course in statement for obesity LIS domain. The entry qualification for this course was set at Higher Secondary (10+2) in what essay Arts / Science or Commerce. Launching of this course will force the learners to choose the LIS by choice and not by chance. It will again help the students to grasp and understand the thesis on microstrip antenna using, contents for LIS in a better and exhaustive way. 4.13 Present Status of LIS Education in India:- Only few departments and associations now provide Certificate Courses in Library and should a heading for a, Information Science (CLIS) and essay, Diploma in Library and what for a college essay, Information Science (DLIS). The others provide BLISc and MLISc courses. In most of the universities, the prerequisite for admission into the Bachelor or Master degree course in Library and Information Science is ever 10+2+3 years of education from any faculty (arts, science, commerce etc). The majority of the universities generally conduct two separate courses for the Bachelor's degree followed by the Master of Library and Information Science of one year (or two semesters) duration each. In recent years, some institutions have offered two years of integrated courses of four semester duration.
The University of Calcutta went a step ahead and introduced five years integrated course in LIS with entry qualification as 10 +2. Similarly IGNOU and YCMOU are also playing major role in imparting LIS education along with deemed and formal universities. Students in most schools of library and information science have the opportunity to develop at for a college, least some degree of specialization. Some may take advanced courses in particular library functions, such as reference work, while others may take courses related to a particular type of library, such as a course in medical librarianship or public librarianship or academic librarianship. In simple, there are many different courses available in LIS. It makes the professionals available to work at all levels of library irrespective of type, structure and function. The University Grants Commission (UGC), from time to time recommended the broader outlines of courses of Library and Information Science. The latest effort has been through a UGC Curriculum Development Committee (1993). The UGC and thesis paper, other higher bodies now give emphasis to semester system rather than annual system, and credit-based rather than marks-based system.
Every university being autonomous is what should for a college free to frame its own course of studies, and syllabi of many universities / schools are quite modernized. All programmes to educate librarians share certain characteristics. Programmes typically offer courses in the history of books and librarianship to give students a background in the profession's past. It also includes courses in knowledge organization (classification, cataloguing, bibliography, indexing abstracting, Metadata, semantic syntactic analysis, controlled vocabularies, etc.), collection development (acquisition), information seeking behaviors of users, search strategies, library services (dissemination of the acquired library materials, reference), and management of the collection (preservation conservation of documents). Thesis Statement For Obesity. It also includes contents related to scholarly communication (bibliometrics, Infometrics, scientometrics, webometrics), digital libraries and ICT. 4.16 ICT as an Integral Part:- Technology is entering in a very big way in every sector and in LIS where it has been used extensively to store and retrieve information in different forms and structures. This new dimension is reflected in the course structure of what should almost all universities that provides courses in tips for writing annotated bibliography LIS. The courses include topics that impart new skill in organizing web resources, and what college essay, providing web-based services.
4.17 Practical Exposure:- All courses provide scope of practical knowledge rather than restricting to only theory. Even some universities make it compulsory for their learners to undergo some apprenticeship before practicing the librarianship. 4.18 Problems with Present LIS Education and Research:- 4.18.1 Limited Accommodation Capacity:- All universities which provide Library and Information Science courses witness a great flow of learners. But they are able to accommodate only resume psoting, a limited number of such desired students. 4.18.2 A Very Competitive Entrance Examination:- In most of the universities, students desire to what a heading, study the LIS has to go through a very competitive entrance examination for admission.
4.18.3 Limitation as a Professional Subject:- LIS is a professional course and so it has the limitations of any other professional courses. The non-inclusion of improve essay writing Library and Information Science in UPSC, Civil Service / State Public Service Commission examination, SET / SLET is what should a heading essay a very common. The other problems include lack of a standard cohesive syllabus of LIS and low level of resume psoting awareness among the general people about this course. 4.19 LIS Research in India:- The LIS research briefly means the collection and analysis of original data on what should a heading a problem of librarianship, done within the library school according to scientific and scholarly standard. Research in this connection broadly includes investigation, studies, surveys, academic work at the doctoral, post doctoral and research staff level, It also includes in house or action research by practicing librarians, information personnel and documentalists, etc. The aim of research in LIS, like any other discipline is to research evolution, contribute towards the advancement of what should a heading for a college subject and contribution to the existing knowledge. 4.19.1 Dr. S. R. Vs Creation. Ranganathan's Effort:-
The era of LIS research in India started with S. R. Ranganathans efforts. He performed individual research for what college essay several years. His works that lead to some of the fundamental and theoretical principles have dominated the greatest, research activities for five decades. What For A. His idea of classification and cataloguing becomes the area of research in different library schools all over the world. The library and academic community of those days, even today also respect him as a pioneer researcher in LIS. Some of his worth notable contributions are.
a) Five laws of library science. b) Colon Classification. c) Prolegomena to library classification. d) Classified Catalogue Code. e) Documentation and its facets. f) Library administration, etc. In India research activity to reflect in two programs. 4.19.2 M. Phil Programme:- i) University of Delhi:- University of Delhi was the for writing annotated bibliography, first to should a heading, introduce M. How To Improve. Phil programme in Library and Information Science in 1980. Today more than 11 universities offer the M.Phil programme. The duration of M. What Should Essay. Phil programme in almost all universities in this country is one year. 4.19.3 PhD Programme:- i) University of Delhi:- The credit for introducing the thesis statement for obesity paper, doctoral degree programme in library science in India goes to a heading college, Dr.
S. Thesis Statement For Obesity. R. Ranganathan (1892'1972). In 1951, he started PhD program in Delhi University in 1958. The university offered first doctoral degree in Library science to D. B. Krishan Rao for his 'Facet Analysis and Depth Classification of Agriculture' under the guidance of what should college essay Dr. S. R. Ranganathan. In 1977, Panjab University, Chandigarh offered the second Ph.D. Today more than 125 Universities in India have Ph.D. research facilities. ii) Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC):- In 1962, Dr. S. R. Ranganathan established Documentation Research and Training Centre at Bangalore. For Writing Bibliography. Since its inception, it has been carrying out research studies on documentation and related areas. iii) Library Associations:-
The contribution of what a heading essay library association of India towards research activities is negligible but they restrict their activities in the field of thesis statement paper publication of journals, organization of seminars, conferences and workshop, etc. for making ground to do research in LIS. IATLIS, NASSDOC, ILA, IASLIC are the mentionable among them. iv) Funding of LIS Research in India:- The University Grants Commission (UGC) is promoting LIS research by awarding different kinds of fellowships to the students. For A. Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) and Defence Scientific Information and Documentation Centre (DESIDOC) are also promoting LIS research programme by awarding scholarship to thesis paper, doctoral students. v) D.Litt Programme:- In 1992, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar awarded D.Litt. to Dr. What Should A Heading College Essay. B. B. Resume Psoting. Shukla. What A Heading For A Essay. It claimed to statement for obesity, be the first such degree in what should college essay library science all over the world.(Kumar, 1998) 4.20 LIS Research : Global Overview:- Rochester and Vakkari (2003) conducted various national studies of different countries to analyse the trends in thesis for obesity paper LIS research at what a heading essay, global scenario and record the research trends in LIS research at global level based on the analysis.
The different national studies in research were conducted by these two authors as an assignment of patch antenna using IFLA project during 1997-1998 and compared national and international trends in LIS research and recorded the development in research. The countries covered in the analysis were basically European countries Japan, China, UK, USA etc. The analytical study conducted and results reported by a heading essay, IFLA provided a descriptive account of research conducted in using various prominent countries of the world. The author's analysis on what for a essay the research activity and broad subject in which prominent research covered during the period 1965-1995 indicated that the major focus in tips for writing LIS research at International level was concentrated mainly of the following topics. 1. Information storage and retrieval (87) 2. Library and information services (77) 3. Information seeking behavior (8)
4. Other LIS topics (25) Thus out of 197 research studies it was reflected that ISR, LIS services and ISB were in prominent areas. Though these are common during the a heading for a essay, period the trend was almost similar in other countries also. European countries covering Finland, Spain etc had research activity in library services, information seeking behaviour, information services and retrieval where as in UK the same situation was reported. In Spain 1995 LIS degrees were recognized as academic degrees in universities. Information science research took leading position in European countries. The research trends in Australia reflected in LIS services, information seeking and greatest, history were more prominent (74). In China principals in LIS , LIS services, information industry were the for a college, major research areas, were more considered but library and information services area was more popular. The most popular sub topics on which research was conducted more during 1965-1995 in China were : ' Library management and essay, administration. In China during the period 1979-1985 it was known as revolver phase of LIS research, 1986-1990 flourishing phase and 1991 onward developing stage and college essay, information service, library education were the prominent areas.
A comparative study conducted Vakkari (1996) for LIS research in Scandinavia countries like Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Norway; Spain etc. also reflected European trends in LIS research. Thus it was reflected that major countries noted below during this period involved more in research concentration at broad information topics. It was found that research at international level had orientation towards solving information problems. In LIS many authors reviewed the research methods used by LIS scholars for conducting effective research and noticed that the among the different methods in which descriptive research covering survey (66), historical conceptual research element (79) as well as discussions, mathematical methods, literature review were the prominent methods. In UK, LIS research was examined by Layzell Ward (1998) and pointed out the research trends and informed that research output was low initially and increased latter after establishment of library association which setup research committee 1946 and from 1960 Government funding made available for LIS research. Since the establishment of British Library 1994 the growth in greatest essay research gradually increased after 1980 and information technology, information storage and what should college, retrieval become more popular topics. From the above global study it is noticed that LIS research progress was slow and how to essay, different topics were grouped in to three areas based in traditional practices and since 1990 area were shifted towards modernization covering : 1. Library history: Library profession, Library administration, Library education, Analysis of libraries, Publishing and book industries.
2. Library and information services: Circulation, Collection development, Information and what for a, seeking behavior, User education. 3. Information storage and retrieval: Cataloguing, classification and indexing, Information retrieval, Bibliographic databases. 4. Information seeking behavior: Methods of information dissemination, Information sources, Information seeking behavior in tips for writing annotated different subject, Information use, Information management. 5. Scientific and professional communication: Scientific publication, Citation pattern and structures, Methods of communication. At the end of 2001 centre for information research at what should college, university of central England, Birmingham examines the research landscape in LIS domain. They have reviewed LIS research 2002-2005 and recorded potential gaps in LIS research activities. The survey using questioners covered LIS organizations links public library, universities libraries, schools and colleges, government libraries etc. the statement, survey was focused on core areas in LIS. The centre reported that in for a college essay LIS research domain may be local regional, national and international have a practice or academic focus. Hayns et. Paper. al (2000), pointed out that strategic research, basic research, exploratory research, action research, applied research are the major types of research. Strategic research deals with practical applications, basic research relate to a heading for a, theoretical investigation and helps in understanding principals of information management where as exploratory research generate new ideas with practical applications.
Applied research creates applications or products as well as transferable knowledge. Action research covers findings solutions to problems at work places worked of different services in 1984 Stewert felt that research area in how to improve writing LIS. This covers resources and what a heading essay, services, new technologies, management of thesis statement for obesity change, library services, staff skills, literacy, staff motivations etc. thus the prominent areas in LIS research was predicted was information retrieval, library co-operation, digital resources, information services, preservation and access to should a heading college, knowledge, information providers, public library etc. Till 1995 prominent research was conducted in above areas using different research methods for thesis on microstrip patch antenna metamaterial conducting research in LIS like, historical method, survey method, qualitative, evaluation, action (case) research method, content analysis, citation analysis, bibliometric methods, secondary analysis (Literature review) and experimental research, bibliographic methods etc. For A. The data collection techniques used by researcher while conducting the study during 1965-1995 mainly covers questioner, observation, interview, content analysis, citation analysis, historical resources analysis and secondary analysis. In UK research conducted mainly in essay ever the area public library, library management, user studies, technical processing, information storage and a heading, retrieval etc. (Meadows 1994, 1995). Peritz (1977) conducted a study in which analysed research articles published in 39 core journals published during the period 1950-1975 from LIS to find out the tips, publishing trends in the stream. Author analysed about 900 journals articles and recorded the should for a, research trends. How To Improve. Similar study was also performed by Atkins (1988) and he analysed subject trends in LIS research carried out a heading college essay, during the period 1975-1984 using questionnaire.
The purpose of the author in conducting this study was to find past, present and future trends in LIS research. Atkins in his study presented a table indicating popularity of the subject in essay ever which research articles were publish and these were treated as a base to conduct LIS research. The areas isolated by him are : 1. Library management. 2. Information retrieval. 5. Public library. 6. What A Heading For A College. Library automation. 7. Library history. 8. Thesis For Obesity Paper. Library finance. 9. What. Collection development. 10. Information services.
15. Citation studies. 16. Special libraries. 17. Tips For Writing Annotated Bibliography. Research libraries. 18. Library education. 19. University library. 20. Library building. 21. Special collection. 22. National library. 23. Library security.
The author opined that in developed countries till 1980 traditional concept were considered and since 1980 emphasis was given on latest trends related topics which were in currency like databases, ICT applications. The growth of OCLC, RLIN and WLN gave more attention towards research in the advanced topics and modernization, automation, database developments etc were considered more by the researcher. 'Citation analysis' was the subject area proved more popular and reported more studies as compared to other topics in LIS, due to should for a college essay, its applications in the field to manage libraries and provide better services to users and uses in library at its highest potential. Mcnicol and Nankivell (2003), in their study 'The LIS research landscape: A review and prognosis' conducted a survey of research in LIS covering the period in two parts 1997-2002 and 2002-2005. How To Essay Writing. The comparative analysis of the should, study leads to find out trends in research in LIS. This study highlighted LIS research landscape to identify trends and analysis as well as the improve writing, gaps in research. Should A Heading For A. Slewart (1984) in his study prepared a research agenda and indicated few research areas in LIS which are not yet considered. 1. Resources utility and user and services requirement. 2. New technologies.
3. Management change. 4. Library services. 7. Retraining staff. 8. Restructuring libraries. Sumsion (1994), also focused on the following research topics and also opined that there is a need to work on tips annotated the current development to what college, get the quicker solution . 1. Library principals. 2. Identify trends.
3. New user needs. 4. New type of services. Pluse and Prythech (1996), studied and analysed LIS research conducted during 1990-1996 and identified few prospective areas like: 1. Operational management. 2. Standards and benchmarking. 3. Use of internet.
5. Staffing pattern. Few authors pointed out areas of research conducted in UK, USA during period 1996-2002 after a study and reported few of the prominent areas considered more in developed countries are: 1. Information retrieval. 2. Paper. Information skill. 4. Professional development. 7. What Should A Heading For A Essay. LIS education. 8. User development. 9. Electronic services. Thus research conducted in developed countries during 1996-2002 indicated increasing trends and it was highest since 2001. Further while indicating future research development themes for research activities suggested were,
1. Electronic information. 2. Information policy. 3. Multimedia policy. 4. LIS education. 5. Business information.
Electronic resources and information services based on digital media is the need of the time including internet resource management. Few prominent subjects presented to undertake future studies are: 1. Impact of digital resources. 2. Digital library development. 3. ICT and school library. 4. Use of electronic resources. 5. Community building. 6. Controlled vocabulary.
7. Information searching. 10. Semantic web and controlled terminologies. The editorial of library and information science research (1997), in which research agenda beyond 2000 was highlighted by Burke and others and focused the areas in LIS research before 1997 and next bilinear were also highlighted. Information seeking and information retrieval, storage and on microstrip antenna using metamaterial, preservation technology, information quality was covered more. The opinion of editorial board covers the major topics like economics, manage rising cost of journals, electronic publishing, information retrieval, internets and its impact on libraries, bibliographic information resources, library services, quality information services, information need/assessment, managing organizational change due to what should a heading, application of information technology, digital information services, web technology, value added information services are the major core areas to be looked in to thesis on microstrip patch, 2000 onwards. Samdani (2011), in his article narrated the status of doctoral research in LIS in Pakistan and appended the views indicating the LIS research was started in 1967 from university of Karachi. In Pakistan seven universities and one private university is what a heading for a offering doctoral research programme in resume psoting LIS. During 1967-1971 only five candidates admitted for research program and only one i.e.
M A H Chishti completed his thesis and awarded degree in 1981 entitled 'Islamic libraries (749 AD-1257 AD)'. In 1992 second PhD degree was awarded to Nasim Fatima under the guidance of Dr. What Should. Jamil Jalibi from university of Karachi entitled 'cataloguing and standardization of greatest Urdu manuscripts'. The third degree awarded to Munira Ansari in 2005 entitled 'Information needs and information seeking behaviour of the media practitioners in Pakistan'. The fourth degree awarded to Shamshad Ahmed in 2009 for entitled 'A study of library and archival record in directorate of Sindh archives Karachi'. The ongoing research activity involve 13 candidates in research programme and their topics are information generating and handling, health science libraries, news paper library, digital library, library and a heading college essay, information science education curriculum, reference and information sources etc. It is review that university of Karachi four PhD degrees awarded and 13 ongoing PhD research work. From university of Panjab, Lahor initiated doctoral research program in 1971. First degree awarded in 2004 and second degree awarded in essay 2005.
The topics were funding model in library and collection management in libraries, at present till 2009, three students have submitted the thesis. In university of Sindh research programme started in 2001 first degree awarded in 2005 and presently four students have registered for ongoing research program and their topics school libraries, college librarianship, user survey/user satisfaction, digital libraries etc. From Islamia University started doctoral program in 1986 and first degree awarded in 1991 for what university library and presently three students have registered for how to improve writing PhD ongoing research program. From university of Balochistan only what a heading college, one candidate having registered in 2003. University of Peshawar, Urdu university of Karachi, Hamdard University, Karachi research has been reflected only at initial stage. It is thus reported that 19 PhD degrees in LIS were awarded during 1964-2010. From foreign university thus 1964-2010, 28 PhD degrees were awarded in 46 years duration, almost single degree in a twice year. During 2004-2010 total ten PhD were declared and research vs creation, this is the real contribution of for a essay Pakistan. The topics were covered academic library, collection management, library education, classification, cataloguing, library funding, school library, university library, user education etc. as compared Indian progress is excellent. Miwa (2011), in his article trends in Japanese LIS education is highlighted in which more trace was given on research papers LIS education to maintain quality.
The problem areas indentified were public library, academic library, special library, research activities, ICT, professional system etc. it has also same educational pattern followed in India i.e. any bachelor degree, bachelor degree in LIS, master degree and doctoral in LIS. In Sri Lanka (Chamani 2008), the major research covered till 2008 were library professional, library history, publishing, LIS education, Information system, information storage and retrieval, information seeking behaviour etc. The review of what should college LIS research in different countries highlighted that till 2005 almost traditional research was focused more but since 2005 more research is covering latest trends in the profession. From the how to writing, review of India the same picture is reported except the ICT and technology based research initiated since 2009 onwards. 4.21 Research trend in Indian Universities: The research activity in Indian universities is gathering momentum as there is what should for a essay a greater demand for the research in the discipline. During the recent past, quite a number of resume psoting research activities have been carried out in the universities and research institutions in what should a heading for a college various parts of the world. In India, due to the establishment of University Grants Commission (UGC), AICTE and other similar bodies and their active support, many students are caring out M. Phil. and PhD degrees. During pre-independence, there were only few doctorate degree holders, but after independence the research output increased drastically in every field. In India about 125 universities and research institutions are offering PhD programs in statement for obesity LIS.
Many researchers made an effort to collect data from different universities and analyzed it to fix the research productivity of the what essay, various universities in India (Chandrashekara 2009). The credit for the formal institution of the doctoral degree program in library science in thesis antenna metamaterial India goes undeniably to Dr. S.R. Ranganathan (1892'1972). In 1951, he started library science education at the University of Delhi. For A. The University of Delhi awarded the first de jure degree in library science in 1957 to D.B. Krishan Rao who worked on 'faceted classification for agriculture'(Chandrashekara 2009, Gupta 2010). Doctoral research remained in the wilderness when Ranganathan shifted to Delhi in 1955. In 1960s and 1970s some doctorates in library related topics were earned by library professionals under the guidance and supervision of thesis statement paper faculties belonging to the disciplines such as sociology, history, law, economics, management, and the like. The purpose of reviving and furthering doctoral research facilities was assumed by J. S. Sharma (1924'1993), the then university librarian and head of the library science department of the Panjab University, Chandigarh.
Under his guidance, the second de jure (de jure means devoting something and someone) Ph.D. in library science was awarded in 1977 after a gap of two decades. Many universities followed with mostly individual efforts and enthusiasm and what college, doctoral research raised since 1980s and gradual improvement in facilities paved ways for India to maintain its third world leadership in library research and library literature. PhD programs thereafter, mushroomed even despite the lack of facilities or adherence to standards (Satija 1999, Gupta 2010). Chandrashekara (2009) collected the data from thesis paper various authorized sources for the degrees awarded in Indian universities from 1957 to 2008 in LIS discipline and should a heading for a college essay, analyzed in proper manner in his paper. His results indicated that during the period 1957 to 2008 about 802 theses were submitted and awarded the degrees to improve essay writing, the researchers. From his analysis it is very clear that LIS researches gained momentum since 1991 to 2008 and on an average degree awarded per year were 36 and from 1957 to 1990 only 8 per annum average degrees were awarded. The drastic change is reported since 2003 onwards and on an average 43 degrees were awarded per should for a college essay, year in Indian universities. Even author had grouped decennial growth of research degrees awarded in Indian universities. Greatest Essay. The trends resulted from the data presentation indicated that the real growth starts from 1980 to 2008 and during 1950 to 1979 only 15 degrees were awarded. The analysis of degrees awarded in what should for a college essay different states and arranging them the annotated bibliography, top 10 states in should college India conducted LIS research are Karnataka (169), AP (96), MP (80), MS (58), West Bengal (56), Punjab (45), Orissa (43), UP(42), Rajasthan (41), TN (31) and other states contribution is (141). The analysis made by Chandrashekara and Ramashesh (2009) regarding the research conducted in India during the period 1957-2008 and found that research activity in Karnataka state is resume psoting leading and Maharashtra is ranked at 4th position.
The library and information science deals with all aspects of information and knowledge which includes acquisition of materials, classification and cataloguing, searching tools, information retrieval, library services, preservation and conservation of documents and so on. The library and information science closely related to all other subjects. It forms its own foundation by taking the help of should for a college essay some other subjects. Dr. S. R. Ranganathan is a pioneer in the field of Library and Information Science in the world and India in particular.
He contributed in almost all aspects of the library science. Nowadays many university and colleges provides different courses in Library and Information and annotated, its related subjects. It ranges from for a essay certificate course to PhD. The research trends indicated the growth at global level and also in India. This chapter satisfies the objective 'To study research growth and research trends in LIS and compare it with current developments in LIS'. This chapter summarizes the progress in LIS education, LIS research at global and national level. ' Asundi, A Y and Karisiddappa C R (2007) Library and Information Science Education in India: International perspective with special reference to Developing Countries. DESIDOC Bulletin of Information Technology Vol. Antenna Using Metamaterial. 27(2) March, p.5-11. ' Atkins Stephen E (1988), Subject trends in library and information science research, 1975-1984, Library Trends, Spring, p. 633-658. ' Barman Badan (2012), Library and information science education, Accessed at http://www.netugc.com/library-and-information-science-education-in-india dated on 14.04.2012.
' Burke R M and others (1998), A research agenda beyond 2000, Library and information science research, Vol. 19(3), p. 209-216. ' Chamani G (2008), library and information science research literature in Sri Lanka: A bibliometric study, journal of the university librarians association of Sri Lanka, Vol. 12. ' Chandrashekara, M and Ramasesh, C P (2009) Library and Information Science Research in India. Asia Pacific Conference on LIS education and practice, p.530-537. ' Gupta, D K and what should college, Bhardwaj, K (2010) Library Management Research in Indian Universities. Annals of Library and Information Studies. Vol.
57(Dec), p.333-338. ' Higgins, S E(2007) LIS education and research area for developing countries. On Microstrip Antenna Using. 5th International CALIBER. Punjab University Chandigarh. What Should A Heading For A College. 8-10 Feb. ' Jarvelin, K. and P. Vakkari. 1993. The evolution of library and information science 1965-1985: a content analysis of journal articles. Information Processing and Management, 29(1): 129-144. ' Joshi Manoj K (2010), Library and information science education in India: Some government initiatives, DESIDOC journal of library and information technology, Vol. On Microstrip Using Metamaterial. 30(5), Sept., p 67-73.
' Kumar PSG (1998), Doctoral studies in library and information science in India: A study, DESIDOC Bulletin of what should a heading information technology, vol.18(1), p5-9. ' Layzell Ward (1998), Layzell Ward, P. (1997). The nature of UK research literature: Some thoughts arising from a bibliometric study. IFLA General Conference in Copenhagen, 1997. Paper. Library Theory and Research Section Open Forum paper accessed at http://ifla.queenslibrary.org/IV/ifla63/63rocm.htm accessed on 12.06.2012. ' McNicol; Sarah and Nankivell, Clare (2003) LIS Researchers and Practitioners: a Research Culture, Library and Information Research News 26(83), pp. 10-16. ' Miwa M et. al. (2011), Global LIS: An effort to describe trends in Japanese LIS education for what a heading global collaboration, Asia Pacific conference on Library information education and practice 2011. ' Naukri24 (2012), Library and information science education in India, Accessed at http://www.news24online.com/Library-and-Information-Science-Education-in-India--Options,-Opportunities-and-Places_career24_23.aspx accessed on 14.04.2012.
' Peritz (1981), the methods of library science research: some results from improve a bibliometric survey, Library Research2, p. What A Heading College Essay. 251-268. ' Pluse, John M., and Prythech, Ray (1996), Research in greatest essay Public Libraries, Final Report of the Project on Research in Public Libraries, British Library Research and Innovation Report 8, London: BLRIC. ' Rath, P (2010) Information and communication technology - Application in higher education with special reference to north Eastern region. What Should College Essay. Located at www.caluniv.ac.in/news/prabhakar.doc accessed on 23.07.2011. ' Rochester Maxine, and Vakkari, Pertti (1998), 'International LIS research: A Comparison of National Trends', IFLA Journal 24(3), pp. 166-175. ' Rochester Maxine K (1995), Library and information science research in Australia 1985-1994. A content analysis of research articles in the Australian Academic and Research Libraries 26, p. 163-170.
' Rochester Maxine K and Vakkari Pertti (2003), International library and information science research: A comparison of national trends, IFLA professional reports, Nr. 82. ' Samdani R A and Bhatti R (2011), doctoral research in LIS by Pakistani professionals: An analysis, Library philosophy and practice, accessed on http://inillibunl.edu/lpp accessed at 25.02.2012. ' Sumsion John (1994) strategic research areas and possible research models for UK public libraries, Library Review, Vol. Greatest Essay Ever. 43(4), p 7-26. ' Tsuji Keita, Yoshida Yuko and Miva M (2006) Survey on faculty of Library and Information Science education in Japan, Graduate school of library, Information and Media Studies, University of Tsukuba, 2-3, Kasuga, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8550. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Science essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on should a heading college essay hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is tips annotated bibliography qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Science work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours.
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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. There are several options for students who wish to accelerate to college-level learning during their high school years. There are AP classes, there's the IB program, and a heading for a college, now there's the resume psoting AICE Diploma. If you're not very familiar with the what essay AICE program, never fear; this article will bring you up to speed. We'll cover what the diploma is and improve essay writing, how you can get it, as well as the benefits of college essay pursuing the program (including scholarships and college credit). The AICE Diploma is an internationally recognized diploma awarded for the satisfactory completion of a series of academically rigorous courses specific to AICE in high school. It's viewed as a graduation option in some places: it can stand in for the graduation requirements of certain high schools, though most students will likely earn it in addition to their traditional high school diplomas. The AICE program is also described as an acceleration mechanism, meaning it gets you ready for hard college classes at a more rapid pace than traditional coursework. As with the AP and thesis antenna metamaterial, IB programs, AICE involves studying college-level material before you even graduate high school.
You're also more likely to be accepted into honors classes right away when you get to college if you have an AICE (or AP or IB) Diploma under your belt. The whole AICE program is overseen, ultimately, by a branch of Cambridge University. The classes are hard, and most are offered at two levels: the Advanced Subsidiary (AS) Level, and the Advanced (A) Level. AS Level classes are one year long and less demanding than their A Level counterparts, which are two years in length. Classes tend to for a be narrow and specific in focus; the AICE Diploma entails a very specialized program. In this way, AICE is more like IB than AP, if you're familiar with those two programs. With AICE, there are about 50 subjects to choose from across four different groups: Group 1, Mathematics and Sciences (example: Marine Science); Group 2; Languages (example: Afrikaans); Group 3, Arts and Humanities (example: Hindi Literature); and resume psoting, Group 4, Interdisciplinary and what a heading essay, Skills-Based Subjects (example: Thinking Skills). The AICE Diploma is internationally used and recognized, and it's accepted at for obesity, many universities all over should college the world. At many schools, AICE courses will earn you college credits—but more on thesis on microstrip patch antenna using, that when we talk about the benefits of the program. With AICE's degree of international recognition, this is should a heading for a essay, probably a good idea. The initial consideration for students wanting to earn an AICE Diploma is whether there's a school nearby that offers the program.
The classes aren't something you can freelance; you must earn the diploma through an approved school. These schools are much more common overseas than in the United States, and much more common in Florida than in thesis statement any other state. They do exist in what should a heading for a college the other 49, though. You can locate the nearest school offering AICE on statement for obesity paper, the Cambridge website. Schools that offer AICE may offer AP and/or IB as well; if you're aiming for a diploma, though, you're going to have to should a heading essay commit to one program in how to the end. You might be able to should a heading get a certificate or two from a second program, but don't count on diplomas from the AICE program and the IB program, for instance. Each diploma program entails a number of greatest essay ever classes, and college, it's not practical to think you could fulfill all the requirements of two programs. Once you're enrolled in resume psoting a program, it's time to think about the classes you'll need. Currently, six credits are required for earning the diploma : one credit from the math and science group, one credit from the a heading college languages group, one credit from the paper arts and humanities group, and three credits distributed across the groups any way you want. Optionally, up to two credits may be taken from the interdisciplinary and skills-based subjects group. Your exact options when it comes to classes will depend on which are offered at your school.
Note that these requirements are only valid up through November 2016. Thenceforth, a seventh credit will also be required: one credit from the compulsory core subject, Cambridge AS Level Global Perspectives and Research. Passing an AS Level exam (corresponding to a one-year course) earns you one credit; passing an what should college, A Level exam (corresponding to research a two-year course) earns you two credits. You must take all exams with in should a heading essay a 25-month period. Greatest! In each subject you can earn an A*, A, B, C, D, or E, or you can fail.
Earning an A* is should a heading college, like earning a high A+ in the United States. Earning an E is like earning a C in the United States. Yes, you read that right; each letter grade is more impressive than its American counterpart, with even an E being counted as a passing grade. Depending on your scores, you can earn the AICE Diploma at Pass level, with Merit, or with Distinction. There are 20 to 60 points awarded per on microstrip patch antenna using metamaterial, credit. The diploma is should for a essay, awarded at Pass level for 140-249 points, with Merit at 250 to 359 points, and with Distinction with 360 points or more. If you don't earn the diploma, you can still be awarded certificates in papers evolution the various subjects you took —which may still help you with getting into college or getting college credit. Imagine if your to do list for the AICE Diploma looked this simple. What Are the Benefits of the AICE Diploma? There are many ways that earning the AICE Diploma pays off for students.
Here are a few of the should a heading benefits you should consider if you're looking into the program. Depending on the college you elect to attend, you can earn up to 45 hours of college credit from the for writing AICE Diploma. Individual course certificates can also earn you college credit if you don't earn the should a heading college essay diploma. All this is a function of which college you go to, though; you can check out which colleges around the world recognize AICE at the appropriate Cambridge website. Thesis Statement For Obesity! Schools in the US are much less likely to recognize AICE than AP or IB.
Schools within the United States that do recognize AICE tend to cluster in Florida, and AICE is, once again, a more internationally-minded program, with AICE recognition much more commonplace overseas. AICE is what a heading college, recognized at places like Florida State University, Colorado College, University of Oxford, and Qatar University. Thesis Statement! In Florida, completing the diploma and 100 hours of community service automatically nets you the Florida Academic Scholarships Award from the Florida Bright Futures Scholarship Program. In Kentucky, you can earn a Kentucky Excellence in Education Scholarship that pays out for each E or higher you score on your exams if you're on free or reduced-price lunch. There are also various school-specific scholarships at for a college, colleges like Mississippi State University, among others—check with individual schools for greatest ever, details.
AICE is more flexible than IB, allowing students greater choice in the balance of classes they select. If, for what for a college essay, instance, a student wants to take four credits in languages and only one in each of the resume psoting other required categories, that's totally fine. AICE also demonstrates more concern over the amount of time students spend on busywork, remaining committed, by its own declaration, to helping students learn without excessive amounts of homework. On the what should for a college essay other hand, AICE courses are more specific in their focus than AP classes are. AP classes are known for their broad and shallow approach, whereas AICE classes narrow in on particular subjects and for writing annotated bibliography, drill deep. In a lot of ways, AICE seems to be a happy medium between these other two college preparatory programs. Plus, according to studies by the University of Florida and University of Virginia, it also appears that AICE Diploma students earn higher GPAs in what college college than AP or IB students. Using! All this indicates that it might not be a bad idea to pursue AICE just for the preparedness factor. AICE may be a great option for what should college essay, your education as a whole. Annotated! I'm not saying getting your AICE Diploma will definitely make you feel this good—just probably . AICE is not currently as well known within the US as academic counterparts like AP and IB; however, it has its own definite merits.
The AICE Diploma is overseen by Cambridge University and demands that students fulfill a number of rigorous requirements. It can earn students recognition, credit, and for a college, scholarship money if lined up with the tips annotated proper schools, and it's also an excellent way to further your education all around. To continue reading about what should a heading AICE, including suggestions for when to AICE over thesis statement paper AP or IB, check out our complete introduction to AICE. If AICE doesn't sound like your cup of tea, head on over to what a heading for a college our discussion of AP and IB and improve essay writing, see which of what for a college those might be more appealing to you. Greatest! If you're not clear on what the IB program is, we've got you covered there, too; take a moment to should a heading for a read about IB classes and the IB program as a whole. Want to statement improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points?
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